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Labeling Accuracy of Cannabidiol Extracts Sold Online

Educational Objectives To review Labeling Accuracy of Cannabidiol Extracts Sold Online.
1 Credit CME

There is growing consumer demand for cannabidiol (CBD), a constituent of the cannabis plant, due to its purported medicinal benefits for myriad health conditions.1 Viscous plant-derived extracts, suspended in oil, alcohol (tincture), or vaporization liquid, represent most of the retail market for CBD. Discrepancies between federal and state cannabis laws have resulted in inadequate regulation and oversight, leading to inaccurate labeling of some products.2 To maximize sampling and ensure representativeness of available products, we examined the label accuracy of CBD products sold online, including identification of present but unlabeled cannabinoids.

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Article Information

Correction: This article was corrected for missing Funding/Support, Role of the Sponsors, and Additional Contributions statements on December 5, 2017.

Accepted for Publication: August 7, 2017.

Corresponding Author: Marcel O. Bonn-Miller, PhD, University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, 3440 Market St, Ste 370, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (mbonn@pennmedicine.upenn.edu).

Author Contributions: Dr Bonn-Miller had full access to all of the data in the study and takes responsibility for the integrity of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis.

Concept and design: Bonn-Miller, Loflin, Thomas, Vandrey.

Acquisition, analysis, or interpretation of data: All authors.

Drafting of the manuscript: Bonn-Miller, Loflin, Marcu, Vandrey.

Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: Bonn-Miller, Loflin, Thomas, Hyke, Vandrey.

Statistical analysis: Loflin, Marcu.

Obtained funding: Bonn-Miller.

Administrative, technical, or material support: Bonn-Miller, Loflin, Thomas, Hyke, Vandrey.

Supervision: Bonn-Miller.

Conflict of Interest Disclosures: All authors have completed and submitted the ICMJE Form for Disclosure of Potential Conflicts of Interest. Drs Bonn-Miller, Thomas, and Vandrey reported serving as unpaid board members of the Institute for Research on Cannabinoids. Dr Bonn-Miller reported receiving personal fees from Zynerba Pharmaceuticals, the Lambert Center for the Study of Medicinal Cannabis and Hemp, the Realm of Caring Foundation, Tilray, CW Botanicals, Insys Therapeutics, International Cannabis and Cannabinoids Institute, the Medical Cannabis Institute, and Aphria. Dr Vandrey reported receiving personal fees from Zynerba Pharmaceuticals, CW Hemp, Battelle Memorial Institute, and Insys Pharmaceuticals. No other disclosures were reported.

Funding/Support: This project was funded by a grant from the Institute for Research on Cannabinoids (IROC), a 501(c)(3) nonprofit organization supported by individual donations.

Role of the Funder/Sponsor: Although Drs Bonn-Miller, Thomas, and Vandrey serve as unpaid board members of IROC, the institution played no part in the design or conduct of the study; collection, management, analysis, or interpretation of the data; preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript; or decision to submit the manuscript for publication.

Additional Contributions: We thank the Realm of Caring Foundation for their facility and staff support for the execution of this project. They did not receive compensation for their contribution.

References
1.
Whiting  PF, Wolff  RF, Deshpande  S,  et al.  Cannabinoids for medical use: a systematic review and meta-analysis.  JAMA. 2015;313(24):2456-2473.PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
2.
Vandrey  R, Raber  JC, Raber  ME, Douglass  B, Miller  C, Bonn-Miller  MO.  Cannabinoid dose and label accuracy in edible medical cannabis products.  JAMA. 2015;313(24):2491-2493.PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
3.
US Food and Drug Administration.  2016 Warning letters and test results for cannabidiol-related products. https://www.fda.gov/newsevents/publichealthfocus/ucm484109.htm. Accessed August 15, 2017.
4.
Babalonis  S, Haney  M, Malcolm  RJ,  et al.  Oral cannabidiol does not produce a signal for abuse liability in frequent marijuana smokers.  Drug Alcohol Depend. 2017;172:9-13.PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
5.
Bergamaschi  MM, Queiroz  RH, Zuardi  AW, Crippa  JA.  Safety and side effects of cannabidiol, a Cannabis sativa constituent.  Curr Drug Saf. 2011;6(4):237-249.PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
6.
Crippa  JA, Crippa  AC, Hallak  JE, Martín-Santos  R, Zuardi  AW.  Δ9-THC intoxication by cannabidiol-enriched cannabis extract in two children with refractory epilepsy.  Front Pharmacol. 2016;7:359.PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
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