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Novel Vaccine TechnologiesEssential Components of an Adequate Response to Emerging Viral Diseases

Educational Objective
Review how emerging viral diseases with pandemic potential are a perpetual challenge to global health.
1 Credit CME

The availability of vaccines in response to newly emerging infections is impeded by the length of time it takes to design, manufacture, and evaluate vaccines for clinical use. Historically, the process of vaccine development through to licensure requires decades; however, clinicians and public health officials are often faced with outbreaks of viral diseases, sometimes of a pandemic nature that would require vaccines for adequate control. New viral diseases emerge from zoonotic and vectorborne sources, such as Middle East Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus and Chikungunya, and while these diseases are often detected in resource-rich countries, they usually begin in low- and mid-income countries.1 Therefore, part of the timeline for a vaccine involves surveillance and detection of new pathogens in remote areas and transfer of specimens to laboratories capable of vaccine development.

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Article Information

Corresponding Author: Anthony S. Fauci, MD, Laboratory of Immunoregulation, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, 31 Center Dr, MSC 2520, Bldg 31, Room 7A-03, Bethesda, MD 20892-2520 (afauci@niaid.nih.gov).

Published Online: March 22, 2018. doi:10.1001/jama.2018.0345

Conflict of Interest Disclosures: All authors have completed and submitted the ICMJE Form for Disclosure of Potential Conflicts of Interest. Drs Graham and Mascola reported they are inventors on a pending patent application for a Zika DNA vaccine for which a licensing agreement is being negotiated. No other disclosures were reported.

References
1.
Jones  KE, Patel  NG, Levy  MA,  et al.  Global trends in emerging infectious diseases.  Nature. 2008;451(7181):990-993.PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
2.
Graham  BS, Sullivan  NJ.  Emerging viral diseases from a vaccinology perspective: preparing for the next pandemic.  Nat Immunol. 2018;19(1):20-28.PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
3.
Dowd  KA, Ko  SY, Morabito  KM,  et al.  Rapid development of a DNA vaccine for Zika virus.  Science. 2016;354(6309):237-240.PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
4.
Ulmer  JB, Geall  AJ.  Recent innovations in mRNA vaccines.  Curr Opin Immunol. 2016;41:18-22.PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
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