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Antiretroviral therapy (ART) is the cornerstone of prevention and management of HIV infection.
To evaluate new data and treatments and incorporate this information into updated recommendations for initiating therapy, monitoring individuals starting therapy, changing regimens, and preventing HIV infection for individuals at risk.
New evidence collected since the International Antiviral Society–USA 2016 recommendations via monthly PubMed and EMBASE literature searches up to April 2018; data presented at peer-reviewed scientific conferences. A volunteer panel of experts in HIV research and patient care considered these data and updated previous recommendations.
ART is recommended for virtually all HIV-infected individuals, as soon as possible after HIV diagnosis. Immediate initiation (eg, rapid start), if clinically appropriate, requires adequate staffing, specialized services, and careful selection of medical therapy. An integrase strand transfer inhibitor (InSTI) plus 2 nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) is generally recommended for initial therapy, with unique patient circumstances (eg, concomitant diseases and conditions, potential for pregnancy, cost) guiding the treatment choice. CD4 cell count, HIV RNA level, genotype, and other laboratory tests for general health and co-infections are recommended at specified points before and during ART. If a regimen switch is indicated, treatment history, tolerability, adherence, and drug resistance history should first be assessed; 2 or 3 active drugs are recommended for a new regimen. HIV testing is recommended at least once for anyone who has ever been sexually active and more often for individuals at ongoing risk for infection. Preexposure prophylaxis with tenofovir disoproxil fumarate/emtricitabine and appropriate monitoring is recommended for individuals at risk for HIV.
Conclusions and Relevance
Advances in HIV prevention and treatment with antiretroviral drugs continue to improve clinical management and outcomes for individuals at risk for and living with HIV.
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Corresponding Author: Michael S. Saag, MD, School of Medicine, University of Alabama at Birmingham, 845 19th St S, BBRB 256, Birmingham, AL 35294 (firstname.lastname@example.org).
Accepted for Publication: June 12, 2018.
Author Contributions: Dr Saag had full access to all of the data in the study and takes responsibility for the integrity of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis.
Concept and design: Saag, Benson, Gandhi, Hoy, Mugavero, Sax, Smith, Thompson, Buchbinder, del Rio, Eron, Fätkenheuer, Günthard, Jacobsen, Volberding.
Acquisition, analysis, or interpretation of data: Saag, Benson, Gandhi, Hoy, Landovitz, Mugavero, Sax, Smith, Thompson, Buchbinder, Eron, Fätkenheuer, Günthard, Molina, Volberding.
Drafting of the manuscript: Saag, Benson, Gandhi, Hoy, Landovitz, Mugavero, Sax, Smith, Thompson, Buchbinder, del Rio, Fätkenheuer, Molina, Jacobsen, Volberding.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: Saag, Benson, Gandhi, Hoy, Landovitz, Mugavero, Sax, Smith, Thompson, Buchbinder, del Rio, Eron, Fätkenheuer, Günthard, Molina.
Obtained funding: Jacobsen.
Administrative, technical, or material support: Saag, Landovitz, Mugavero, Sax, Smith, Günthard, Jacobsen, Volberding.
Supervision: Saag, Benson, Landovitz, Smith, Eron, Günthard.
Conflict of Interest Disclosures: All authors have completed and submitted the ICMJE Form for Disclosure of Potential Conflicts of Interest. Dr Saag reported receiving consulting fees from Gilead, ViiV, and Merck and receiving grants paid to his institutions from Gilead, ViiV, Merck, and Proteus. Dr Benson reported receiving a grant paid to her institution from Gilead; receiving personal fees from ViiV-GlaxoSmithKline; and that her spouse receives consulting fees from Pfizer and Cytodyne. Dr Gandhi reported receiving educational grants to his institution from Gilead, ViiV, and Merck and receiving consulting fees from Gilead, Merck, and Theratechnologies. Dr Hoy reported receiving advisory board fees paid to her institution from Gilead, ViiV, and Merck Sharp & Dohme. Dr Landovitz reported receiving travel fees from Gilead and Merck. Dr Mugavero reported receiving personal fees from Gilead. Dr Sax reported receiving nonfinancial support from Bristol-Myers Squibb; receiving research grants paid to his institution from Gilead and ViiV-GlaxoSmithKline; and receiving consulting fees from Gilead, Janssen, Merck, and ViiV-GlaxoSmithKline. Dr Smith reported receiving a grant paid to his institution from ViiV and receiving consulting fees from Merck, Gilead, and the AIDS Healthcare Foundation. Dr Thompson reported receiving research funding paid to the AIDS Research Consortium of Atlanta from Bristol-Myers Squibb, CytoDyn, GlaxoSmithKline, Gilead, Merck Sharp & Dohme, Roche Laboratories, Taimed, and ViiV. Dr Buchbinder reported receiving nonfinancial support from Gilead. Dr del Rio reported receiving grants from the Emory Center for AIDS Research and the Emory–Centers for Disease Control and Prevention HIV Clinical Trials Unit and receiving consulting fees from ViiV. Dr Eron reported receiving personal fees from Merck, Janssen, Gilead, ViiV, and Bristol-Myers Squibb and receiving grants paid to the University of North Carolina from Janssen, ViiV, Gilead, and Bristol-Myers Squibb. Dr Fätkenheuer reported receiving grants from the Federal Ministry of Education and Research and the German Center for Infection Research. Dr Günthard reported receiving grant funding from the Swiss National Science Foundation, Systems.X (HIV.X), University of Zurich Clinical Research Priority Program, Swiss HIV Cohort Study, National Institutes of Health, Gilead, and the Yvonne Jacob Foundation and receiving consulting fees from Gilead, Sandoz, Teva, and Merck. Dr Molina reported receiving consulting fees from Merck, Gilead, ViiV, Bristol-Myers Squibb, Janssen, and Teva and receiving a grant paid to his institution from Gilead. Dr Volberding reported receiving personal fees from Merck. No other authors reported disclosures.
Funding/Support: The work is sponsored and funded by the International Antiviral Society–USA (IAS-USA). The IAS-USA is a mission-based, nonmembership, 501(c)(3) not-for-profit organization. No private sector or government funding was used to support the effort. Panel members are not compensated for participation in the effort.
Role of the Funder/Sponsor: The IAS-USA determined the need to update recommendations, selected the panel members, and provided administrative support and oversight. The panel designed and conducted the work; collected, managed, analyzed, and interpreted the data; prepared, reviewed, and approved the manuscript; and submitted the manuscript for publication.
Additional Contributions: We thank Michelle Valderama, BS (IAS-USA), for administrative support and Hacsi Horváth, MA (University of California San Francisco), for conducting the PubMed and EMBASE literature searches.
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