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Effect of Postextubation High-Flow Nasal Oxygen With Noninvasive Ventilation vs High-Flow Nasal Oxygen Alone on Reintubation Among Patients at High Risk of Extubation FailureA Randomized Clinical Trial

Educational Objective
To learn the effect of adding noninvasive ventilation to high-flow nasal oxygen therapy among recently extubated patients at high risk of extubation failure.
1 Credit CME
Key Points

Question  Among mechanically ventilated patients at high risk of extubation failure, does the use of high-flow nasal oxygen with noninvasive ventilation after extubation reduce the risk of reintubation compared with high-flow nasal oxygen alone?

Findings  In this randomized clinical trial that included 641 patients, high-flow nasal oxygen with noninvasive ventilation, compared with high-flow nasal oxygen alone, significantly decreased the rate of reintubation within the first 7 days after extubation (11.8% vs 18.2%).

Meaning  In patients at high risk of extubation failure, the use of high-flow nasal oxygen with noninvasive ventilation after extubation significantly decreased the risk of reintubation compared with high-flow nasal oxygen alone.

Abstract

Importance  High-flow nasal oxygen may prevent postextubation respiratory failure in the intensive care unit (ICU). The combination of high-flow nasal oxygen with noninvasive ventilation (NIV) may be an optimal strategy of ventilation to avoid reintubation.

Objective  To determine whether high-flow nasal oxygen with prophylactic NIV applied immediately after extubation could reduce the rate of reintubation, compared with high-flow nasal oxygen alone, in patients at high risk of extubation failure in the ICU.

Design, Setting, and Participants  Multicenter randomized clinical trial conducted from April 2017 to January 2018 among 641 patients at high risk of extubation failure (ie, older than 65 years or with an underlying cardiac or respiratory disease) at 30 ICUs in France; follow-up was until April 2018.

Interventions  Patients were randomly assigned to high-flow nasal oxygen alone (n = 306) or high-flow nasal oxygen alternating with NIV (n = 342) immediately after extubation.

Main Outcomes and Measures  The primary outcome was the proportion of patients reintubated at day 7; secondary outcomes included postextubation respiratory failure at day 7, reintubation rates up until ICU discharge, and ICU mortality.

Results  Among 648 patients who were randomized (mean [SD] age, 70 [10] years; 219 women [34%]), 641 patients completed the trial. The reintubation rate at day 7 was 11.8% (95% CI, 8.4%-15.2%) (40/339) with high-flow nasal oxygen and NIV and 18.2% (95% CI, 13.9%-22.6%) (55/302) with high-flow nasal oxygen alone (difference, −6.4% [95% CI, −12.0% to −0.9%]; P = .02). Among the 11 prespecified secondary outcomes, 6 showed no significant difference. The proportion of patients with postextubation respiratory failure at day 7 (21% vs 29%; difference, −8.7% [95% CI, −15.2% to −1.8%]; P = .01) and reintubation rates up until ICU discharge (12% vs 20%, difference −7.4% [95% CI, −13.2% to −1.8%]; P = .009) were significantly lower with high-flow nasal oxygen and NIV than with high-flow nasal oxygen alone. ICU mortality rates were not significantly different: 6% with high-flow nasal oxygen and NIV and 9% with high-flow nasal oxygen alone (difference, −2.4% [95% CI, −6.7% to 1.7%]; P = .25).

Conclusions and Relevance  In mechanically ventilated patients at high risk of extubation failure, the use of high-flow nasal oxygen with NIV immediately after extubation significantly decreased the risk of reintubation compared with high-flow nasal oxygen alone.

Trial Registration  ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03121482

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Article Information

Corresponding Author: Arnaud W. Thille, MD, PhD, Médecine Intensive Réanimation, CHU de Poitiers, 2 rue la Milétrie, 86021 Poitiers Cedex, France (aw.thille@gmail.com).

Accepted for Publication: September 9, 2019.

Published Online: October 2, 2019. doi:10.1001/jama.2019.14901

Correction: This article was corrected online on February 25, 2020, to clarify the intervention description in the Abstract and Methods section; to correct data reported for exploratory outcomes in the Results section; and to fix the x-axis labels in Figure 2 and Figure 3.

Author Contributions: Dr Thille had full access to all of the data in the study and takes responsibility for the integrity of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis. All authors give their agreement to be accountable for all aspects of the work, and ensure the accuracy and integrity of any part of the work.

Concept and design: Thille, Girault, Dellamonica, Lacave, Zanre, Ragot, Frat.

Acquisition, analysis, or interpretation of data: All authors.

Drafting of the manuscript: Thille, Coudroy, Girault, Cabasson, Nanadoumgar, Zanre, Demoule, Ragot, Frat.

Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: Thille, Muller, Gacouin, Coudroy, Decavèle, Sonneville, Beloncle, Girault, Dangers, Lautrette, Rouzé, Vivier, Le Meur, Ricard, Razazi, Barberet, Lebert, Ehrmann, Sabatier, Bourenne, Pradel, Bailly, Terzi, Dellamonica, Lacave, Danin, Gibelin, Zanre, Deye, Demoule, Maamar, Nay, Robert, Ragot, Frat.

Statistical analysis: Thille, Zanre, Ragot.

Obtained funding: Thille, Pradel, Zanre.

Administrative, technical, or material support: Thille, Gacouin, Dangers, Rouzé, Le Meur, Razazi, Lebert, Lacave, Zanre, Demoule, Robert.

Supervision: Thille, Zanre, Robert, Ragot.

Conflict of Interest Disclosures: Dr Thille reported receiving grants from the French Ministry of Health and personal fees and nonfinancial support from Fisher & Paykel Healthcare during the conduct of the study and personal fees from Maquet-Getinge, GE Healthcare, and Covidien outside the submitted work. Dr Sonneville reported receiving grants from the French Ministry of Health, the European Society of Intensive Care Medicine, and the French Society of Intensive Care Medicine and personal fees from Baxter outside the submitted work. Dr Beloncle reported receiving personal fees from Lowenstein Medical and nonfinancial support from GE Healthcare, Getinge Group, and Covidien outside the submitted work. Dr Girault reported receiving grants, personal fees, and nonfinancial support from Fisher & Paykel Healthcare during the conduct of the study and grants and nonfinancial support from ResMed outside the submitted work. Dr Ricard reported receiving travel and accommodation expenses from Fisher & Paykel Healthcare outside the submitted work. Dr Ehrmann reported receiving grants, nonfinancial support, and other funding from Fisher & Paykel Healthcare during the conduct of the study; grants, personal fees, nonfinancial support, and other funding from Aerogen; grants from Hamilton; personal fees from La Diffusion Technique Française; and personal fees from Baxter outside the submitted work. In addition, Dr Ehrmann had a patent to EP17305015 issued. Dr Terzi reported receiving personal fees from Boehringer Ingelheim and Pfizer outside the submitted work. Dr Danin reported receiving fees for lectures from Fisher and Paykel during the conduct of the study. Dr Deye reported receiving lecture and travel fees from Zoll and Bard outside the submitted work. Dr Demoule reported receiving personal fees from Medtronic, Baxter, Hamilton, and Getinge; grants, personal fees, and nonfinancial support from Philips and Lungpacer; personal fees and nonfinancial support from Fisher & Paykel Healthcare; and grants from the French Ministry of Health and Respinor outside the submitted work. Dr Frat reported receiving personal fees and nonfinancial support from Fisher & Paykel Healthcare during the conduct of the study and personal fees and nonfinancial support from SOS Oxygen outside the submitted work. No other disclosures were reported.

Funding/Support: The study was funded by the “Programme Hospitalier de Recherche Clinique National 2015” of the French Ministry of Health through the University Hospital of Poitiers, Poitiers, France.

Role of the Funder/Sponsor: The funder had no role in the design and conduct of the study; collection, management, analysis, and interpretation of the data; preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript; and decision to submit the manuscript for publication. Fisher & Paykel provided to all the participating centers the high-flow nasal oxygen equipment and masks for noninvasive ventilation but had no other involvement in the study.

Group Information: Members of the HIGH-WEAN Study Group and REVA Research Network include the following: Florence Boissier (Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Poitiers, Médecine Intensive Réanimation, Poitiers), Delphine Chatellier (Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Poitiers, Médecine Intensive Réanimation, Poitiers), Céline Deletage (Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Poitiers, Médecine Intensive Réanimation, Poitiers), Carole Guignon (Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Poitiers, Médecine Intensive Réanimation, Poitiers), Florent Joly (Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Poitiers, Médecine Intensive Réanimation, Poitiers), Morgane Olivry (Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Poitiers, Médecine Intensive Réanimation, Poitiers), Anne Veinstein (Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Poitiers, Médecine Intensive Réanimation, Poitiers), Dalila Benzekri-Lefevre (Groupe Hospitalier Régional d’Orléans, Médecine Intensive Réanimation, Orléans), Thierry Boulain (Groupe Hospitalier Régional d’Orléans, Médecine Intensive Réanimation, Orléans), Yves Le Tulzo (Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Rennes, Hôpital Ponchaillou, Service des Maladies Infectieuses et Réanimation Médicale, Rennes), Jean-Marc Tadié (Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Rennes, Hôpital Ponchaillou, Service des Maladies Infectieuses et Réanimation Médicale, Rennes), Suela Demiri (Groupe Hospitalier Pitié-Salpêtrière Charles Foix, Service de Pneumologie et Réanimation Médicale, AP-HP, Paris), Julien Mayaux (Groupe Hospitalier Pitié-Salpêtrière Charles Foix, Service de Pneumologie et Réanimation Médicale, Paris), Lila Bouadma (Hôpital Bichat–Claude Bernard, Médecine Intensive Réanimation, Paris), Claire Dupuis (Hôpital Bichat–Claude Bernard, Médecine Intensive Réanimation, Paris), Pierre Asfar (Centre Hospitalier Universitaire d’Angers, Département de Médecine Intensive Réanimation, Angers), Marc Pierrot (Centre Hospitalier Universitaire d’Angers, Département de Médecine Intensive Réanimation, Angers), Gaëtan Béduneau (Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Rouen, Hôpital Charles Nicolle, Département de Réanimation Médicale, Rouen), Déborah Boyer (Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Rouen, Hôpital Charles Nicolle, Département de Réanimation Médicale, Rouen), Benjamin Delmas (Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Félix Guyon, Service de Réanimation Polyvalente, Saint Denis de la Réunion), Bérénice Puech (Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Félix Guyon, Service de Réanimation Polyvalente, Saint Denis de la Réunion), Konstantinos Bachoumas (Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Clermont-Ferrand, Hôpital Gabriel Montpied, Clermont-Ferrand), Edouard Soum (Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Clermont–Ferrand, Hôpital Gabriel Montpied, Clermont-Ferrand), Marie-Anne Hoppe (Centre Hospitalier de La Rochelle, Service de Réanimation, La Rochelle), Quentin Levrat (Centre Hospitalier de La Rochelle, Service de Réanimation, La Rochelle), Saad Nseir (Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Lille, Center de Réanimation, Lille), Olivier Pouly (Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Lille, Center de Réanimation, Lille), Gaël Bourdin (Hôpital Saint-Joseph Saint-Luc, Réanimation Polyvalente, Lyon), Sylvène Rosselli (Hôpital Saint-Joseph Saint-Luc, Réanimation Polyvalente, Lyon), Charlotte Garret (Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Nantes, Médecine Intensive Réanimation, Nantes), Maelle Martin (Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Nantes, Médecine Intensive Réanimation, Nantes), Guillaume Berquier (Hôpital Louis Mourier, Réanimation Médico-Chirurgicale, Colombes) Abirami Thiagarajah (Hôpital Louis Mourier, Réanimation Médico-Chirurgicale, Colombes), Guillaume Carteaux (Hôpitaux Universitaires Henri Mondor, Service de Réanimation Médicale, Créteil), Armand Mekontso-Dessap (Hôpitaux Universitaires Henri Mondor, Service de Réanimation Médicale, Créteil), Antoine Poidevin (Groupe Hospitalier Régional Mulhouse Sud Alsace, site Emile Muller, Service de Réanimation Médicale, Mulhouse), Anne-Florence Dureau (Groupe Hospitalier Régional Mulhouse Sud Alsace, site Emile Muller, Service de Réanimation Médicale, Mulhouse), Marie-Ange Azais (Centre Hospitalier Départemental de Vendée, Service de Médecine Intensive Réanimation, La Roche Sur Yon), Gwenhaël Colin (Centre Hospitalier Départemental de Vendée, Service de Médecine Intensive Réanimation, La Roche Sur Yon), Emmanuelle Mercier (Centre Hospitalier Régional Universitaire de Tours, Médecine Intensive Réanimation, Tours), Marlène Morisseau (Centre Hospitalier Régional Universitaire de Tours, Médecine Intensive Réanimation, Tours), Alexandre Massri (Centre Hospitalier de Pau, Service de Réanimation, Pau), Walter Picard (Centre Hospitalier de Pau, Service de Réanimation, Pau), Marc Gainnier (CHU La Timone 2, Médecine Intensive Réanimation, Marseille), Thi-My-Hue Nguyen (Centre Hospitalier Henri Mondor d’Aurillac, Service de Réanimation, Aurillac), Gwenaël Prat (Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Brest, Médecine Intensive Réanimation, Brest), Carole Schwebel (Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Grenoble Alpes, Médecine Intensive Réanimation, Grenoble), and Matthieu Buscot (Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Nice, Réanimation Médicale Archet 1, Université Cote d’Azur, Nice).

Meeting Presentation: Presented at the annual congress of the European Society of Intensive Care Medicine, October 2, 2019, Berlin, Germany.

Additional Contributions: We thank Jeffrey Arsham (a translator employed by CHU de Poitiers, Poitiers, France) for reviewing and editing the original English-language manuscript.

Data Sharing Statement: See Supplement 3.

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