[Skip to Content]
[Skip to Content Landing]

Associations Between Screen Use and Child Language SkillsA Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

Educational Objective
To examine via meta-analyses the associations between quantity (duration of screen time and background television), quality (educational programming and co-viewing), and onset of screen use and children's language skills.
1 Credit CME
Key Points

Question  What is the association between screen use and children’s language skills across the extant literature?

Findings  In this systematic review and meta-analysis of data from 42 studies, greater quantity of screen use (ie, hours per day/week) was negatively associated with child language, while better quality of screen use (ie, educational programs and co-viewing with caregivers) were positively associated with child language skills.

Meaning  Findings support pediatric recommendations to limit screen exposure, to provide high-quality programming, and to co-view when possible.


Importance  There is considerable public and scientific debate as to whether screen use helps or hinders early child development, particularly the development of language skills.

Objective  To examine via meta-analyses the associations between quantity (duration of screen time and background television), quality (educational programming and co-viewing), and onset of screen use and children’s language skills.

Data Sources  Searches were conducted in MEDLINE, Embase, and PsycINFO in March 2019. The search strategy included a publication date limit from 1960 through March 2019.

Study Selection  Inclusion criteria were a measure of screen use; a measure of language skills; and statistical data that could be transformed into an effect size. Exclusion criteria were qualitative studies; child age older than 12 years; and language assessment preverbal.

Data Extraction and Synthesis  The following variables were extracted: effect size, child age and sex, screen measure type, study publication year, and study design. All studies were independently coded by 2 coders and conducted in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines.

Main Outcomes and Measures  Based on a priori study criteria, quantity of screen use included duration of screen time and background television, quality of screen use included co-viewing and exposure to educational programs, and onset of screen use was defined as the age children first began viewing screens. The child language outcome included assessments of receptive and/or expressive language.

Results  Participants totaled 18 905 from 42 studies included. Effect sizes were measured as correlations (r). Greater quantity of screen use (hours per use) was associated with lower language skills (screen time [n = 38; r = −0.14; 95% CI, −0.18 to −0.10]; background television [n = 5; r = −0.19; 95% CI, −0.33 to −0.05]), while better-quality screen use (educational programs [n = 13; r = 0.13; 95% CI, 0.02-0.24]; co-viewing [n = 12; r = 0.16; 95% CI, 0.07-.24]) were associated with stronger child language skills. Later age at screen use onset was also associated with stronger child language skills [n = 4; r = 0.17; 95% CI, 0.07-0.27].

Conclusions and Relevance  The findings of this meta-analysis support pediatric recommendations to limit children’s duration of screen exposure, to select high-quality programming, and to co-view when possible.

Sign in to take quiz and track your certificates

Buy This Activity

JN Learning™ is the home for CME and MOC from the JAMA Network. Search by specialty or US state and earn AMA PRA Category 1 Credit(s)™ from articles, audio, Clinical Challenges and more. Learn more about CME/MOC

CME Disclosure Statement: Unless noted, all individuals in control of content reported no relevant financial relationships. If applicable, all relevant financial relationships have been mitigated.

Article Information

Accepted for Publication: January 22, 2020.

Published Online: March 23, 2020. doi:10.1001/jamapediatrics.2020.0327

Correction: This article was corrected on March 28, 2022, to fix the higher and lower child language labels in Figures 2, 3, and 4.

Corresponding Author: Sheri Madigan, PhD, Department of Psychology, University of Calgary, 2500 University Ave, Calgary, AB T2N 1N4, Canada (sheri.madigan@ucalgary.ca).

Author Contributions: Dr Madigan had full access to all of the data in the study and takes responsibility for the integrity of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis.

Concept and design: Madigan, Anhorn, Christakis.

Acquisition, analysis, or interpretation of data: Madigan, McArthur, Anhorn, Eirich.

Drafting of the manuscript: Madigan, McArthur, Eirich, Christakis.

Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: Anhorn, Eirich.

Statistical analysis: Madigan, McArthur, Anhorn.

Administrative, technical, or material support: Madigan, Eirich, Christakis.

Supervision: Madigan, Christakis.

Conflict of Interest Disclosures: None reported.

Disclaimer: Dr Christakis is Editor of JAMA Pediatrics, but he was not involved in any of the decisions regarding review of the manuscript or its acceptance.

Additional Contributions: Cheri Nickel, MLIS, conducted the literature search. Claire McGuinness, BSc, assisted in the abstract review and data extraction, and David Sidhu, PhD, assisted with figure preparations. All are affiliated with the University of Calgary. All received compensation for their work.

Rideout  V .  The Common Sense Census: Media Use by kids Zero to Eight. Common Sense Media; 2017.
Radesky  JS , Christakis  DA .  Increased screen time: implications for early childhood development and behavior.   Pediatr Clin North Am. 2016;63(5):827-839. doi:10.1016/j.pcl.2016.06.006PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
Christakis  DA , Gilkerson  J , Richards  JA ,  et al.  Audible television and decreased adult words, infant vocalizations, and conversational turns: a population-based study.   Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2009;163(6):554-558. doi:10.1001/archpediatrics.2009.61PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
Madigan  S , Browne  D , Racine  N , Mori  C , Tough  S .  Association between screen time and children’s performance on a developmental screening test.   JAMA Pediatr. 2019;173(3):244-250. doi:10.1001/jamapediatrics.2018.5056PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
Zimmerman  FJ , Christakis  DA , Meltzoff  AN .  Associations between media viewing and language development in children under age 2 years.   J Pediatr. 2007;151(4):364-368. doi:10.1016/j.jpeds.2007.04.071PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
Chonchaiya  W , Pruksananonda  C .  Television viewing associates with delayed language development.   Acta Paediatr. 2008;97(7):977-982. doi:10.1111/j.1651-2227.2008.00831.xPubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
Lee  E-Y , Spence  JC , Carson  V .  Television viewing, reading, physical activity and brain development among young South Korean children.   J Sci Med Sport. 2017;20(7):672-677. doi:10.1016/j.jsams.2016.11.014PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
Ruangdaraganon  N , Chuthapisith  J , Mo-suwan  L , Kriweradechachai  S , Udomsubpayakul  U , Choprapawon  C .  Television viewing in Thai infants and toddlers: impacts to language development and parental perceptions.   BMC Pediatr. 2009;9(1):34. doi:10.1186/1471-2431-9-34PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
Christakis  DA .  The effects of infant media usage: what do we know and what should we learn?   Acta Paediatr. 2009;98(1):8-16. doi:10.1111/j.1651-2227.2008.01027.xPubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
Rice  ML , Huston  AC , Truglio  R , Wright  JC .  Words from “Sesame Street”: Learning Vocabulary While Viewing. Vol 26. American Psychological Association; 1990:421-428.
Linn  S , Poussaint  AF .  The truth about Teletubbies.   Zero Three. 2001;22(2):24-29.Google Scholar
Roseberry  S , Hirsh-Pasek  K , Golinkoff  RM .  Skype me! socially contingent interactions help toddlers learn language.   Child Dev. 2014;85(3):956-970. doi:10.1111/cdev.12166PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
Linebarger  DL , Walker  D .  Infants’ and toddlers’ television viewing and language outcomes.   Am Behav Sci. 2005;48(5):624-645. doi:10.1177/0002764204271505Google ScholarCrossref
Yang  X , Chen  Z , Wang  Z , Zhu  L .  The Relations between television exposure and executive function in Chinese preschoolers: the moderated role of parental mediation behaviors.   Front Psychol. 2017;8:1833. doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2017.01833PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
Blankson  AN , O’Brien  M , Leerkes  EM , Calkins  SD , Marcovitch  S .  Do hours spent viewing television at ages 3 and 4 predict vocabulary and executive functioning at age 5?   Merrill-Palmer Q. 2015;61(2):264-289. doi:10.13110/merrpalmquar1982.61.2.0264Google ScholarCrossref
Leaper  C , Smith  TE .  A meta-analytic review of gender variations in children’s language use: talkativeness, affiliative speech, and assertive speech.   Dev Psychol. 2004;40(6):993-1027. doi:10.1037/0012-1649.40.6.993PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
Forrest  CB , Glade  GB , Baker  AE , Bocian  AB , Kang  M , Starfield  B .  The pediatric primary-specialty care interface: how pediatricians refer children and adolescents to specialty care.   Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 1999;153(7):705-714. doi:10.1001/archpedi.153.7.705PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
Madigan  S , Wade  M , Plamondon  A , Browne  D , Jenkins  JM .  Birth weight variability and language development: risk, resilience, and responsive parenting.   J Pediatr Psychol. 2015;40(9):869-877. doi:10.1093/jpepsy/jsv056PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
Stanovich  KE .  Matthew effects in reading: some consequences of individual differences in the acquisition of literacy.   J Educ. 2009;189(1-2):23-55. doi:10.1177/0022057409189001-204Google ScholarCrossref
Beitchman  JH , Wilson  B , Johnson  CJ ,  et al.  Fourteen-year follow-up of speech/language-impaired and control children: psychiatric outcome.   J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2001;40(1):75-82. doi:10.1097/00004583-200101000-00019PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
American Academy of Pediatrics. American Academy of Pediatrics announces new recommendations for children’s media use. Published 2016. Accessed December 5, 2019. https://www.aap.org/en-us/about-the-aap/aap-press-room/Pages/American-Academy-of-Pediatrics-Announces-New-Recommendations-for-Childrens-Media-Use.aspx
Tremblay  MS , Carson  V , Chaput  JP .  Introduction to the Canadian 24-Hour movement guidelines for children and youth: an integration of physical activity, sedentary behaviour, and sleep.   Appl Physiol Nutr Metab. 2016;41(6)(suppl 3):iii-iv. doi:10.1139/apnm-2016-0203PubMedGoogle Scholar
COUNCIL ON COMMUNICATIONS AND MEDIA.  Media and young minds.   Pediatrics. 2016;138(5):e20162591. doi:10.1542/peds.2016-2591PubMedGoogle Scholar
Ponti  M , Bélanger  S , Grimes  R ,  et al; Canadian Paediatric Society, Digital Health Task Force, Ottawa, Ontario.  Screen time and young children: promoting health and development in a digital world.   Paediatr Child Health. 2017;22(8):461-477. doi:10.1093/pch/pxx123PubMedGoogle Scholar
World Health Organization. Guidelines on physical activity, sedentary behaviour and sleep for children under 5 years of age. Published 2019. Accessed July 4, 2019. https://apps.who.int/iris/handle/10665/311664
American College of Pediatricians. The Impact of Media Use and Screen Time on Children, Adolescents, and Families. Published 2016. Accessed September 4, 2018. https://www.acpeds.org/the-college-speaks/position-statements/parenting-issues/the-impact-of-media-use-and-screen-time-on-children-adolescents-and-families
Viner  R ; Royal College of Paediatrics and Child Health. The health impacts of screen time: a guide for clinicians and parents. Published 2019. Accessed December 5, 2019. https://www.rcpch.ac.uk/sites/default/files/2018-12/rcpch_screen_time_guide_-_final.pdf
Straker  L , Zabatiero  J , Danby  S , Thorpe  K , Edwards  S .  Conflicting guidelines on young children’s screen time and use of digital technology create policy and practice dilemmas.   J Pediatr. 2018;202:300-303. doi:10.1016/j.jpeds.2018.07.019PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
Ferguson  CJ , Beresin  E .  Social science’s curious war with pop culture and how it was lost: the media violence debate and the risks it holds for social science.   Prev Med. 2017;99:69-76. doi:10.1016/j.ypmed.2017.02.009PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
Dunn  LM , Dunn  LM .  Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test. 3rd ed. American Guidance Services; 1997.
Fenson  L , Dale  PS , Reznick  JS , Bates  E , Thal  DJ , Pethick  SJ .  Variability in early communicative development.   Monogr Soc Res Child Dev. 1994;59(5):1-173. doi:10.2307/1166093PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
NIH National Heart Lung and Blood Institute. Quality assessment tool for observational cohort and cross-sectional studies. Accessed September 03, 2019. https://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health-topics/study-quality-assessment-tools
Bornstein  MH , Hahn  CS , Putnick  DL .  Stability of core language skill across the first decade of life in children at biological and social risk.   J Child Psychol Psychiatry. 2016;57(12):1434-1443. doi:10.1111/jcpp.12632PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
Putnick  DL , Bornstein  MH , Eryigit-Madzwamuse  S , Wolke  D .  Long-term stability of language performance in very preterm, moderate-late preterm, and term children.   J Pediatr. 2017;181:74-79.e3. doi:10.1016/j.jpeds.2016.09.006PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
Comprehensive meta-analysis: a computer program for research synthesis. Version 3.0. Computer program. Biostat; 2005.
Rosenthal  R .  Writing meta-analytic reviews.   Psychol Bull. 1995;118(2):183. doi:10.1037/0033-2909.118.2.183Google ScholarCrossref
Funder  DC , Ozer  DJ .  Evaluating effect size in psychological research: sense and nonsense.   Adv Methods Pract Psychol Sci. 2019;2(2):156-168. doi:10.1177/2515245919847202Google ScholarCrossref
Borenstein  M , Hedges  LV , Higgins  JPT , Rothstein  HR .  Introduction to Meta-Analysis. John Wiley & Sons; 2009. doi:10.1002/9780470743386
 IBM SPSS Statistics for Windows, Version 25.0. IBM Corp; 2017.
Thompson  SG , Higgins  JPT .  How should meta-regression analyses be undertaken and interpreted?   Stat Med. 2002;21(11):1559-1573. doi:10.1002/sim.1187PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
Allen  L , Cipielewski  J , Stanovich  KE .  Multiple indicators of children’s reading habits and attitudes: Construct validity and cognitive correlates.   J Educ Psychol. 1992;84(4):489-503. doi:10.1037/0022-0663.84.4.489Google ScholarCrossref
Alloway  TP , Williams  S , Jones  B , Cochrane  F .  Exploring the impact of television watching on vocabulary skills in toddlers.   Early Child Educ J. 2014;42(5):343-349. doi:10.1007/s10643-013-0618-1Google ScholarCrossref
Arraf  S .  An analysis of the effects of television viewing patterns, IQ, SES and gender on receptive and expressive language development of preschool children.   Dissertation Abstracts International. 1991;52(2-A):420.Google Scholar
Barr  R , Lauricella  A , Zack  E , Calvert  SL .  Infant and early childhood exposure to adult-directed and child-directed television programming: relations with cognitive skills at age four.   Merrill-Palmer Q. 2010;56(1):21-48. doi:10.1353/mpq.0.0038Google ScholarCrossref
Bittman  M , Rutherford  L , Brown  J , Unsworth  L .  Digital natives? new and old media and children’s outcomes.   Aust J Educ. 2011;55(2):161-175. doi:10.1177/000494411105500206Google ScholarCrossref
Byeon  H , Hong  S .  Relationship between television viewing and language delay in toddlers: evidence from a Korea national cross-sectional survey.   PLoS One. 2015;10(3):e0120663. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0120663PubMedGoogle Scholar
Castles  A , McLean  GMT , Bavin  E ,  et al.  Computer use and letter knowledge in pre-school children: a population-based study.   J Paediatr Child Health. 2013;49(3):193-198. doi:10.1111/jpc.12126PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
Duch  H , Fisher  EM , Ensari  I ,  et al.  Association of screen time use and language development in Hispanic toddlers: a cross-sectional and longitudinal study.   Clin Pediatr (Phila). 2013;52(9):857-865. doi:10.1177/0009922813492881PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
Hudon  TM , Fennell  CT , Hoftyzer  M .  Quality not quantity of television viewing is associated with bilingual toddlers’ vocabulary scores.   Infant Behav Dev. 2013;36(2):245-254. doi:10.1016/j.infbeh.2013.01.010PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
Levin  SR .  Preschool individual differences and patterns of television viewing.   Dissertation Abstracts International. 1978;39(1-B):444-445.Google Scholar
Lin  L-Y , Cherng  R-J , Chen  Y-J , Chen  Y-J , Yang  H-M .  Effects of television exposure on developmental skills among young children.   Infant Behav Dev. 2015;38:20-26. doi:10.1016/j.infbeh.2014.12.005PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
Linebarger  DL , Moses  A , Garrity Liebeskind  K , McMenamin  K .  Learning vocabulary from television: does onscreen print have a role?   J Educ Psychol. 2013;105(3):609-621. doi:10.1037/a0032582Google ScholarCrossref
Masur  EF , Flynn  V , Olson  J .  Infants’ background television exposure during play: negative relations to the quantity and quality of mothers’ speech and infants’ vocabulary acquisition.   First Lang. 2016;36(2):109-123. doi:10.1177/0142723716639499Google ScholarCrossref
McKean  C , Mensah  FK , Eadie  P ,  et al.  Levers for language growth: characteristics and predictors of language trajectories between 4 and 7 years.   PLoS One. 2015;10(8):e0134251. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0134251PubMedGoogle Scholar
Mendelsohn  AL , Berkule  SB , Tomopoulos  S ,  et al.  Infant television and video exposure associated with limited parent-child verbal interactions in low socioeconomic status households.   Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2008;162(5):411-417. doi:10.1001/archpedi.162.5.411PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
Moon  JH , Cho  SY , Lim  SM ,  et al.  Smart device usage in early childhood is differentially associated with fine motor and language development.   Acta Paediatr. 2019;108(5):903-910.PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
Nelson  K .  Structure and strategy in learning to talk.   Monogr Soc Res Child Dev. 1973;38(1/2):1-135. doi:10.2307/1165788Google ScholarCrossref
Pagani  LS , Fitzpatrick  C , Barnett  TA .  Early childhood television viewing and kindergarten entry readiness.   Pediatr Res. 2013;74(3):350-355. doi:10.1038/pr.2013.105PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
Patterson  JL .  Relationships of expressive vocabulary to frequency of reading and television experience among bilingual toddlers.   Appl Psycholinguist. 2002;23(4):493-508. doi:10.1017/S0142716402004010Google ScholarCrossref
Richert  RA , Robb  MB , Fender  JG , Wartella  E .  Word learning from baby videos.   Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2010;164(5):432-437. doi:10.1001/archpediatrics.2010.24PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
Rosenqvist  J , Lahti-Nuuttila  P , Holdnack  J , Kemp  SL , Laasonen  M .  Relationship of TV watching, computer use, and reading to children’s neurocognitive functions.   J Appl Dev Psychol. 2016;46:11-21. doi:10.1016/j.appdev.2016.04.006Google ScholarCrossref
Schmidt  ME , Rich  M , Rifas-Shiman  SL , Oken  E , Taveras  EM .  Television viewing in infancy and child cognition at 3 years of age in a US cohort.   Pediatrics. 2009;123(3):e370-e375. doi:10.1542/peds.2008-3221PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
Selnow  G , Bettingaus  E .  Television exposure and language development.   J Broadcast Electron Media. 1982;26(1):469-479. doi:10.1080/08838158209364014Google ScholarCrossref
Taylor  G , Monaghan  P , Westermann  G .  Investigating the association between children’s screen media exposure and vocabulary size in the UK.   J Child Media. 2018;12(1):51-65. doi:10.1080/17482798.2017.1365737Google ScholarCrossref
Tomopoulos  S , Dreyer  BP , Berkule  S , Fierman  AH , Brockmeyer  C , Mendelsohn  AL .  Infant media exposure and toddler development.   Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2010;164(12):1105-1111. doi:10.1001/archpediatrics.2010.235PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
van den Heuvel  M , Ma  J , Borkhoff  CM ,  et al; TARGet Kids! Collaboration.  Mobile media device use is associated with expressive language delay in 18-month-old children.   J Dev Behav Pediatr. 2019;40(2):99-104. doi:10.1097/DBP.0000000000000630PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
Wright  JC , Huston  AC , Murphy  KC ,  et al.  The relations of early television viewing to school readiness and vocabulary of children from low-income families: the early window project.   Child Dev. 2001;72(5):1347-1366. doi:10.1111/1467-8624.t01-1-00352PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
Zimmerman  FJ , Gilkerson  J , Richards  JA ,  et al.  Teaching by listening: the importance of adult-child conversations to language development.   Pediatrics. 2009;124(1):342-349. doi:10.1542/peds.2008-2267PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
Madigan  S , Prime  H , Graham  SA ,  et al.  Parenting behavior and child language: a meta-analysis.   Pediatrics. 2019;144(4):e20183556. doi:10.1542/peds.2018-3556PubMedGoogle Scholar
Madigan  S , Wade  M , Plamondon  A , Browne  D , Jenkins  JM .  Birth weight variability and language development: risk, resilience, and responsive parenting.   J Pediatr Psychol. 2015;40(9):869-877. doi:10.1093/jpepsy/jsv056PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
Hart  B , Risley  TR .  Meaningful Differences in the Everyday Experience of Young American Children. Paul H Brookes Publishing; 1995.
Hoff-Ginsberg  E , Shatz  M .  Linguistic input and the child’s acquisition of language.   Psychol Bull. 1982;92(1):3-26. doi:10.1037/0033-2909.92.1.3PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
Wade  M , Jenkins  JM , Venkadasalam  VP , Binnoon-Erez  N , Ganea  PA .  The role of maternal responsiveness and linguistic input in pre-academic skill development: A longitudinal analysis of pathways.   Cogn Dev. 2018;45:125-140. doi:10.1016/j.cogdev.2018.01.005Google ScholarCrossref
Browne  D , Thompson  D , Madigan  S .  Digital media use in children: clinical versus scientific responsibilities.   JAMA Pediatr. 2020;174(2):111.Google Scholar
Barr  R , Hayne  H .  Developmental changes in imitation from television during infancy.   Child Dev. 1999;70(5):1067-1081. doi:10.1111/1467-8624.00079PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
Radesky  J , Christakis  D , Hill  D ,  et al; COUNCIL ON COMMUNICATIONS AND MEDIA.  Media and young minds.   Pediatrics. 2016;138(5):e20162591. doi:10.1542/peds.2016-2591PubMedGoogle Scholar
Radesky  JS , Schumacher  J , Zuckerman  B .  Mobile and interactive media use by young children: the good, the bad, and the unknown.   Pediatrics. 2015;135(1):1-3. doi:10.1542/peds.2014-2251PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
Christakis  DA , Ramirez  JSB , Ferguson  SM , Ravinder  S , Ramirez  J-M .  How early media exposure may affect cognitive function: a review of results from observations in humans and experiments in mice.   Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2018;115(40):9851-9858. doi:10.1073/pnas.1711548115PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
Rideout  V , Hamel  E .  The Media Family: Electronic Media in the Lives of Infants, Toddlers, Preschoolers and Their Parents. Kaiser Family Foundation; 2006.
Barr  R , Zack  E , Garcia  A , Muentener  P .  Infants’ attention and responsiveness to television increases with prior exposure and parental interaction.   Infancy. 2008;13(1):30-56. doi:10.1080/15250000701779378Google ScholarCrossref
Gilkerson  J , Richards  JA , Warren  SF , Oller  DK , Russo  R , Vohr  B .  Language experience in the second year of life and language outcomes in late childhood.   Pediatrics. 2018;142(4):e20174276. doi:10.1542/peds.2017-4276PubMedGoogle Scholar
Roseberry  S , Hirsh-Pasek  K , Parish-Morris  J , Golinkoff  RM .  Live action: can young children learn verbs from video?   Child Dev. 2009;80(5):1360-1375. doi:10.1111/j.1467-8624.2009.01338.xPubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
Munzer  TG , Miller  AL , Weeks  HM , Kaciroti  N , Radesky  J .  Parent-toddler social reciprocity during reading from electronic tablets vs print books.   JAMA Pediatr. 2019;173(11). doi:10.1001/jamapediatrics.2019.3480PubMedGoogle Scholar
Bornstein  MH , Hahn  C-S , Haynes  OM .  Specific and general language performance across early childhood: Stability and gender considerations.   First Lang. 2004;24(3):267-304. doi:10.1177/0142723704045681Google ScholarCrossref
Eriksson  M , Marschik  PB , Tulviste  T ,  et al.  Differences between girls and boys in emerging language skills: evidence from 10 language communities.   Br J Dev Psychol. 2012;30(pt 2):326-343. doi:10.1111/j.2044-835X.2011.02042.xPubMedGoogle Scholar
Karrass  J , Braungart-Rieker  JM , Mullins  J , Lefever  JB .  Processes in language acquisition: the roles of gender, attention, and maternal encouragement of attention over time.   J Child Lang. 2002;29(3):519-543. doi:10.1017/S0305000902005196PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
Hancox  RJ , Milne  BJ , Poulton  R .  Association between child and adolescent television viewing and adult health: a longitudinal birth cohort study.   Lancet. 2004;364(9430):257-262. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(04)16675-0PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
Przybylski  AK , Weinstein  N .  Digital screen time limits and young children’s psychological well-being: evidence from a population-based study.   Child Dev. 2019;90(1):e56-e65.PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
Zimmerman  FJ , Christakis  DA .  Children’s television viewing and cognitive outcomes: a longitudinal analysis of national data.   Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2005;159(7):619-625. doi:10.1001/archpedi.159.7.619PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
Paavonen  EJ , Pennonen  M , Roine  M , Valkonen  S , Lahikainen  AR .  TV exposure associated with sleep disturbances in 5- to 6-year-old children.   J Sleep Res. 2006;15(2):154-161. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2869.2006.00525.xPubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
Wahi  G , Parkin  PC , Beyene  J , Uleryk  EM , Birken  CS .  Effectiveness of interventions aimed at reducing screen time in children: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.   Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2011;165(11):979-986. doi:10.1001/archpediatrics.2011.122PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
Yuan  N , Weeks  HM , Ball  R , Newman  MW , Chang  Y-J , Radesky  JS .  How much do parents actually use their smartphones? pilot study comparing self-report to passive sensing.   Pediatr Res. 2019;86(4):416-418. doi:10.1038/s41390-019-0452-2PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
Domoff  SE , Radesky  JS , Harrison  K , Riley  H , Lumeng  JC , Miller  AL .  A naturalistic study of child and family screen media and mobile device use.   J Child Fam Stud. 2019;28(2):401-410. doi:10.1007/s10826-018-1275-1PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
AMA CME Accreditation Information

Credit Designation Statement: The American Medical Association designates this Journal-based CME activity activity for a maximum of 1.00  AMA PRA Category 1 Credit(s)™. Physicians should claim only the credit commensurate with the extent of their participation in the activity.

Successful completion of this CME activity, which includes participation in the evaluation component, enables the participant to earn up to:

  • 1.00 Medical Knowledge MOC points in the American Board of Internal Medicine's (ABIM) Maintenance of Certification (MOC) program;;
  • 1.00 Self-Assessment points in the American Board of Otolaryngology – Head and Neck Surgery’s (ABOHNS) Continuing Certification program;
  • 1.00 MOC points in the American Board of Pediatrics’ (ABP) Maintenance of Certification (MOC) program;
  • 1.00 Lifelong Learning points in the American Board of Pathology’s (ABPath) Continuing Certification program; and
  • 1.00 CME points in the American Board of Surgery’s (ABS) Continuing Certification program

It is the CME activity provider's responsibility to submit participant completion information to ACCME for the purpose of granting MOC credit.

Want full access to the AMA Ed Hub?
After you sign up for AMA Membership, make sure you sign in or create a Physician account with the AMA in order to access all learning activities on the AMA Ed Hub
Buy this activity
Want full access to the AMA Ed Hub?
After you sign up for AMA Membership, make sure you sign in or create a Physician account with the AMA in order to access all learning activities on the AMA Ed Hub
Buy this activity
With a personal account, you can:
  • Access free activities and track your credits
  • Personalize content alerts
  • Customize your interests
  • Fully personalize your learning experience
Education Center Collection Sign In Modal Right

Name Your Search

Save Search
With a personal account, you can:
  • Access free activities and track your credits
  • Personalize content alerts
  • Customize your interests
  • Fully personalize your learning experience

Lookup An Activity


My Saved Searches

You currently have no searches saved.


My Saved Courses

You currently have no courses saved.