What is the incidence and significance of cardiac injury in patients with COVID-19?
In this cohort study of 416 consecutive patients with confirmed COVID-19, cardiac injury occurred in 19.7% of patients during hospitalization, and it was one independent risk factor for in-hospital mortality.
Cardiac injury is a common condition among patients hospitalized with COVID-19, and it is associated with higher risk of in-hospital mortality.
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has resulted in considerable morbidity and mortality worldwide since December 2019. However, information on cardiac injury in patients affected by COVID-19 is limited.
To explore the association between cardiac injury and mortality in patients with COVID-19.
Design, Setting, and Participants
This cohort study was conducted from January 20, 2020, to February 10, 2020, in a single center at Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan, China; the final date of follow-up was February 15, 2020. All consecutive inpatients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 were included in this study.
Main Outcomes and Measures
Clinical laboratory, radiological, and treatment data were collected and analyzed. Outcomes of patients with and without cardiac injury were compared. The association between cardiac injury and mortality was analyzed.
A total of 416 hospitalized patients with COVID-19 were included in the final analysis; the median age was 64 years (range, 21-95 years), and 211 (50.7%) were female. Common symptoms included fever (334 patients [80.3%]), cough (144 [34.6%]), and shortness of breath (117 [28.1%]). A total of 82 patients (19.7%) had cardiac injury, and compared with patients without cardiac injury, these patients were older (median [range] age, 74 [34-95] vs 60 [21-90] years; P < .001); had more comorbidities (eg, hypertension in 49 of 82 [59.8%] vs 78 of 334 [23.4%]; P < .001); had higher leukocyte counts (median [interquartile range (IQR)], 9400 [6900-13 800] vs 5500 [4200-7400] cells/μL) and levels of C-reactive protein (median [IQR], 10.2 [6.4-17.0] vs 3.7 [1.0-7.3] mg/dL), procalcitonin (median [IQR], 0.27 [0.10-1.22] vs 0.06 [0.03-0.10] ng/mL), creatinine kinase–myocardial band (median [IQR], 3.2 [1.8-6.2] vs 0.9 [0.6-1.3] ng/mL), myohemoglobin (median [IQR], 128 [68-305] vs 39 [27-65] μg/L), high-sensitivity troponin I (median [IQR], 0.19 [0.08-1.12] vs <0.006 [<0.006-0.009] μg/L), N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (median [IQR], 1689 [698-3327] vs 139 [51-335] pg/mL), aspartate aminotransferase (median [IQR], 40 [27-60] vs 29 [21-40] U/L), and creatinine (median [IQR], 1.15 [0.72-1.92] vs 0.64 [0.54-0.78] mg/dL); and had a higher proportion of multiple mottling and ground-glass opacity in radiographic findings (53 of 82 patients [64.6%] vs 15 of 334 patients [4.5%]). Greater proportions of patients with cardiac injury required noninvasive mechanical ventilation (38 of 82 [46.3%] vs 13 of 334 [3.9%]; P < .001) or invasive mechanical ventilation (18 of 82 [22.0%] vs 14 of 334 [4.2%]; P < .001) than those without cardiac injury. Complications were more common in patients with cardiac injury than those without cardiac injury and included acute respiratory distress syndrome (48 of 82 [58.5%] vs 49 of 334 [14.7%]; P < .001), acute kidney injury (7 of 82 [8.5%] vs 1 of 334 [0.3%]; P < .001), electrolyte disturbances (13 of 82 [15.9%] vs 17 of 334 [5.1%]; P = .003), hypoproteinemia (11 of 82 [13.4%] vs 16 of 334 [4.8%]; P = .01), and coagulation disorders (6 of 82 [7.3%] vs 6 of 334 [1.8%]; P = .02). Patients with cardiac injury had higher mortality than those without cardiac injury (42 of 82 [51.2%] vs 15 of 334 [4.5%]; P < .001). In a Cox regression model, patients with vs those without cardiac injury were at a higher risk of death, both during the time from symptom onset (hazard ratio, 4.26 [95% CI, 1.92-9.49]) and from admission to end point (hazard ratio, 3.41 [95% CI, 1.62-7.16]).
Conclusions and Relevance
Cardiac injury is a common condition among hospitalized patients with COVID-19 in Wuhan, China, and it is associated with higher risk of in-hospital mortality.
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CME Disclosure Statement: Unless noted, all individuals in control of content reported no relevant financial relationships. If applicable, all relevant financial relationships have been mitigated.
Accepted for Publication: March 9, 2020.
Corresponding Author: Bo Yang, MD, PhD (email@example.com), and He Huang, MD, PhD (firstname.lastname@example.org), Cardiovascular Research Institute, Department of Cardiology, Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University, 238 Jiefang Rd, Wuchang District, Wuhan 430060, Hubei, China.
Published Online: March 25, 2020. doi:10.1001/jamacardio.2020.0950
Author Contributions: Drs B. Yang and H. Huang had full access to all of the data in the study and take responsibility for the integrity of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis. Drs Shi, Qin, and Shen contributed to the work equally and should be regarded as co–first authors.
Concept and design: Shi, Qin, Shen, Cai, T. Liu, X. Liu, Liang, Zhao, H. Huang, B. Yang, C. Huang.
Acquisition, analysis, or interpretation of data: Shi, F. Yang, Gong, Liang, B. Yang.
Drafting of the manuscript: Shi, Qin, Shen, T. Liu, Zhao.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: Shi, Cai, F. Yang, Gong, X. Liu, Liang, H. Huang, B. Yang, C. Huang.
Statistical analysis: Shi, Qin, Shen, Cai, T. Liu, F. Yang, Gong.
Obtained funding: Shi.
Administrative, technical, or material support: Shi, Shen, F. Yang, Gong, Liang, Zhao, H. Huang, B. Yang, C. Huang.
Supervision: Shi, Qin, X. Liu, Liang, Zhao, B. Yang, C. Huang.
Conflict of Interest Disclosures: None reported.
Funding/Support: This research was supported by grants from the Nature Science Foundation of China (grants 81800447 and 81770324), the Nature Science Foundation of Hubei province (grant 2017CFB204), and the Major Program of Technological Innovation of Hubei Province (grant 2016ACA153).
Role of the Funder/Sponsor: The funders had no role in the design and conduct of the study; collection, management, analysis, and interpretation of the data; preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript; and decision to submit the manuscript for publication.
Additional Contributions: We acknowledge all medical staff involved in the diagnosis and treatment of patients with COVID-19 in Wuhan. We thank Xu Liu, MD, PhD, Department of Cardiology, Shanghai Chest Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University, for guidance in revision of manuscript and interpretation of results; we thank Min Chen, MAEng, Xuecheng Yu, MAEng, and and Zhongli Dai, BE, Wuhan Shinall Technology Co Ltd, for data collation and statistical analysis. They were not compensated for their contributions.
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