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Coronavirus Disease 2019 and ChildrenWhat Pediatric Health Care Clinicians Need to Know

Educational Objective
To understand what pediatric health care clinicians need to know about COVID-19
1 Credit CME

The emergence of a coronavirus illness not previously seen in humans, now called coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), has captured the attention of the US and the world. The virus was first identified in Wuhan, China, after an outbreak of pneumonia of unknown cause was identified in December 2019, with most early cases reporting exposure to a live animal market. On December 31, 2019, China reported the outbreak to the World Health Organization, and shortly thereafter, the responsible pathogen was identified as a novel coronavirus, which is called SARS-CoV-2 because of its sequence similarity to the virus causing severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS). The situation of COVID-19 is evolving rapidly with increasing numbers of cases and involved countries. On January 30, 2020, the World Health Organization declared the novel coronavirus outbreak a public health emergency of international concern, and on March 11, 2020, the outbreak was declared a pandemic. As of March 25, 2020, more than 425 000 cases have been confirmed globally in 170 countries and regions, including more than 55 000 cases in the United States.1

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Article Information

Corresponding Author: Sonja A. Rasmussen, MD, MS, Department of Pediatrics, University of Florida College of Medicine, 1600 SW Archer Rd, PO Box 100296, Gainesville, FL 32610 (skr9@ufl.edu).

Published Online: April 3, 2020. doi:10.1001/jamapediatrics.2020.1224

Conflict of Interest Disclosures: None reported.

References
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Center for Systems Science and Engineering (CSSE) at Johns Hopkins University (JHU). Coronavirus COVID-19 global cases by the Center for Systems Science and Engineering (CSSE) at Johns Hopkins University (JHU). Published 2020. Accessed March 25, 2020. https://www.arcgis.com/apps/opsdashboard/index.html#/bda7594740fd40299423467b48e9ecf6
2.
Rasmussen  SA , Smulian  JC , Lednicky  JA , Wen  TS , Jamieson  DJ .  Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and pregnancy: what obstetricians need to know.   Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2020;S0002-9378(20)30197-6. doi:10.1016/j.ajog.2020.02.017 PubMedGoogle Scholar
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Wu  Z , McGoogan  JM .  Characteristics of and important lessons from the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak in China: summary of a report of 72314 cases from the Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention.   JAMA. Published online February 24, 2020. doi:10.1001/jama.2020.2648 PubMedGoogle Scholar
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Fauci  SS . Vaccine at least year away, as COVID-19 death toll rises to 9 in Seattle. Published March 3, 2020. Accessed March 25, 2020. http://www.cidrap.umn.edu/news-perspective/2020/03/fauci-vaccine-least-year-away-covid-19-death-toll-rises-9-seattle
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Dong  Y , Mo  X , Hu  Y ,  et al.  Epidemiological characteristics of 2143 pediatric patients with 2019 coronavirus disease in China.   Pediatrics. 2020;e20200702. doi:10.1542/peds.2020-0702 PubMedGoogle Scholar
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Shen  KL , Yang  YH .  Diagnosis and treatment of 2019 novel coronavirus infection in children: a pressing issue.   World J Pediatr. Published online March 16, 2020. doi:10.1007/s12519-020-00344-6 PubMedGoogle Scholar
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Kam  KQ , Yung  CF , Cui  L ,  et al.  A well infant with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) with high viral load.   Clin Infect Dis. 2020;ciaa201. Published online February 28, 2020. doi:10.1093/cid/ciaa201 PubMedGoogle Scholar
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CDC COVID-19 Response Team.  Severe outcomes among patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)—United States, February 12-March 16, 2020.   MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2020;69(12):343-346. doi:10.15585/mmwr.mm6912e2PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
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Xia  W , Shao  J , Guo  Y , Peng  X , Li  Z , Hu  D .  Clinical and CT features in pediatric patients with COVID-19 infection: different points from adults.   Pediatr Pulmonol. Published online March 5, 2020. doi:10.1002/ppul.24718 PubMedGoogle Scholar
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US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Implementation of mitigation strategies for communities with local COVID-19 transmission. Published 2020. Accessed March 25, 2020. https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/downloads/community-mitigation-strategy.pdf
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