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From Mitigation to Containment of the COVID-19 PandemicPutting the SARS-CoV-2 Genie Back in the Bottle

Educational Objective
Understanding how two different approaches-containment and mitigation-can affect COVID-19 transmission
1 Credit CME

As part of pandemic preparedness, epidemiologists promote “containment strategies” designed to prevent community transmission. For coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), countries like South Korea—an example of successful containment—had a coordinated governmental response, testing on a massive scale, and prompt contact tracing and quarantine.1 The first cases of South Korea’s COVID-19 outbreak were in mid-January; by late February, South Korea was testing more than 10 000 people daily and, as a result, cases peaked on February 28. Since April 5, 2020, no more than 53 new cases daily have occurred nationwide.1

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CME Disclosure Statement: Unless noted, all individuals in control of content reported no relevant financial relationships. If applicable, all relevant financial relationships have been mitigated.

Article Information

Corresponding Author: Rochelle P. Walensky, MD, MPH, Division of Infectious Diseases, Massachusetts General Hospital, 55 Fruit St, Bul130, Boston, MA 02114 (rwalensky@mgh.harvard.edu).

Conflict of Interest Disclosures: Dr del Rio reported grants from NIH/NIAID. No other disclosures were reported.

Published Online: April 17, 2020. doi:10.1001/jama.2020.6572

Additional Contributions: We thank Loren D. Walensky, MD, PhD, for his critical review and editing of the manuscript and Nicole McCann for her technical assistance.

References
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Markel  H , Stern  AM , Navarro  JA ,  et al.  Nonpharmaceutical influenza mitigation strategies, US communities, 1918-1920 pandemic.   Emerg Infect Dis. 2006;12(12):1961-1964. PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
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Ahmed  F , Zviedrite  N , Uzicanin  A .  Effectiveness of workplace social distancing measures in reducing influenza transmission.   BMC Public Health. 2018;18(1):518. doi:10.1186/s12889-018-5446-1PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
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New York Times. Coronavirus in the U.S.: latest map and case count. April 11, 2020. Accessed April 15, 2020. https://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2020/us/coronavirus-us-cases.html
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Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation. COVID-19 projections assuming full social distancing through May 2020. Published April 10, 2020. Accessed April 15, 2020. https://covid19.healthdata.org/united-states-of-america/kentucky
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Ferretti  L , Wymant  C , Kendall  M ,  et al.  Quantifying SARS-CoV-2 transmission suggests epidemic control with digital contact tracing.   Science. March 2020:eabb6936. doi:10.1126/science.abb6936PubMedGoogle Scholar
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Yancy  CW .  COVID-19 and African Americans.   JAMA. Published online April 15, 2020. doi:10.1001/jama.2020.6548PubMedGoogle Scholar
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Makridis  CA , Hartley  JS . The cost of COVID-19: a rough estimate of the 2020 US GDP impact. Mercatus Center, George Mason University. Published April 6, 2020. Accessed April 11, 2020. https://www.mercatus.org/system/files/makridis-cost-covid-19-mercatus-v1.pdf.
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