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Olfactory Dysfunction in COVID-19Diagnosis and Management

Educational Objective
To understand how COVID-19 affects Olfactory functionality
1 Credit CME

As of May 1, 2020, more than 3 000 000 people worldwide have been infected with the novel coronavirus, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The CDC has highlighted key symptoms that may suggest coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), including cough, shortness of breath or difficulty breathing, fever, chills, muscle pain, sore throat, and new loss of smell or taste.1

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Article Information

Corresponding Author: Thomas Hummel, MD, Smell and Taste Clinic, Department of Otorhinolaryngology, TU Dresden, Fetscherstrasse 74, 01307 Dresden, Germany (thummel@msx.tu-dresden.de).

Published Online: May 20, 2020. doi:10.1001/jama.2020.8391

Conflict of Interest Disclosures: Dr Hummel reported receiving research funding from Sony, The Smell and Taste Lab, Takasago, and aspUraclip. No other disclosures were reported.

References
1.
Symptoms of coronavirus. US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention website. Accessed May 8, 2020. https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/symptoms-testing/symptoms.html
2.
Moein  ST , Hashemian  SMR , Mansourafshar  B , Khorram-Tousi  A , Tabarsi  P , Doty  RL .  Smell dysfunction: a biomarker for COVID-19.   Int Forum Allergy Rhinol. Published online April 17, 2020. doi:10.1002/alr.22587PubMedGoogle Scholar
3.
Spinato  G , Fabbris  C , Polesel  J ,  et al.  Alterations in smell or taste in mildly symptomatic outpatients with SARS-CoV-2 infection.   JAMA. Published online April 22, 2020. doi:10.1001/jama.2020.6771PubMedGoogle Scholar
4.
Anosmia, hyposmia, and dysgeusia symptoms of coronavirus disease. American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery website. Published March 22, 2020. Accessed April 5, 2020. https://www.entnet.org/content/aao-hns-anosmia-hyposmia-and-dysgeusia-symptoms-coronavirus-disease
5.
Hopkins  C , Kumar  N . Loss of sense of smell as marker of COVID-19 infection: joint statement from the British Rhinological Society and ENT-UK. Published March 21, 2020. Accessed April 5, 2020. https://www.entuk.org/sites/default/files/files/Loss%20of%20sense%20of%20smell%20as%20marker%20of%20COVID.pdf
6.
Giacomelli  A , Pezzati  L , Conti  F ,  et al.  Self-reported olfactory and taste disorders in SARS-CoV-2 patients: a cross-sectional study.   Clin Infect Dis. 2020;53(9):1689-1699. doi:10.1093/cid/ciaa330PubMedGoogle Scholar
7.
Sungnak  W , Huang  N , Bécavin  C ,  et al.  SARS-CoV-2 entry factors are highly expressed in nasal epithelial cells together with innate immune genes.   Nat Med. Published online April 23, 2020. doi:10.1038/s41591-020-0868-6PubMedGoogle Scholar
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Netland  J , Meyerholz  DK , Moore  S , Cassell  M , Perlman  S .  Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus infection causes neuronal death in the absence of encephalitis in mice transgenic for human ACE2.   J Virol. 2008;82(15):7264-7275. doi:10.1128/JVI.00737-08PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
9.
Whitcroft  KL , Hummel  T .  Clinical diagnosis and current management strategies for olfactory dysfunction: a review.   JAMA Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2019;1:1-9. doi:10.1001/jamaoto.2019.1728PubMedGoogle Scholar
10.
Yan  CH , Rathor  A , Krook  K ,  et al.  Effect of omega-3 supplementation in patients with smell dysfunction following endoscopic sellar and parasellar tumor resection: a multicenter prospective randomized controlled trial.   Neurosurgery. Published online January 17, 2020. doi:10.1093/neuros/nyz559PubMedGoogle Scholar
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