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Cytokine storm–mediated organ injury continues to dominate current thinking as the primary mechanism for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Although there is an initial hyper-inflammatory phase, mounting evidence suggests that virus-induced defective host immunity may be the real cause of death in many patients.1,2
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Accepted for Publication: June 30, 2020.
Published: July 22, 2020. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2020.16485
Open Access: This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the CC-BY License. © 2020 Laterre PF et al. JAMA Network Open.
Corresponding Author: Pierre Francois Laterre, MD, Department of Critical Care Medicine, Saint Luc University Hospital, Université Catholique de Louvain, Avenue Hippocrate 10, 1200 Brussels, Belgium (firstname.lastname@example.org).
Author Contributions: Drs Laterre and Hotchkiss had full access to all of the data in the study and take responsibility for the integrity of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis.
Concept and design: Laterre, François, Remy, Hotchkiss.
Acquisition, analysis, or interpretation of data: Collienne, Hantson, Jeannet, Remy, Hotchkiss.
Drafting of the manuscript: Hantson, Remy, Hotchkiss.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: Laterre, François, Collienne, Jeannet, Remy, Hotchkiss.
Statistical analysis: Remy.
Administrative, technical, or material support: Collienne, Jeannet, Remy, Hotchkiss.
Supervision: Laterre, Hantson, Remy.
Conflict of Interest Disclosures: Dr Hotchkiss reported being an investigator on a sepsis study evaluating interleukin 7 and receiving grants from the National Institutes of Health outside the submitted work. No other disclosures were reported.
Funding/Support: Dr Hotchkiss was supported by grant GM126928 from the National Institute of General Medicine Sciences. RevImmune provided recombinant human interleukin 7 to the investigators.
Role of the Funder/Sponsor: The funders had no role in the design and conduct of the study; collection, management, analysis, and interpretation of the data; preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript; and decision to submit the manuscript for publication.
Additional Contributions: Michael Morre, DVM (RevImmune), provided the original inspiration for the use of interleukin 7 in the management of coronavirus disease 2019 to treat the lymphopenia, a hallmark of the disorder, and was an invaluable resource for important questions on interleukin 7. Teresa Blood, AB (Department of Anesthesiology, Washington University School of Medicine), helped perform data analysis. Lyle Moldawer, PhD (Department of Surgery, University of Florida Gainesville), assisted with review of the manuscript. Manu Shankar-Hari PhD, MD (School of Immunology and Microbial Sciences, Kings College), assisted with data analysis and manuscript review. They were not compensated for their time.
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