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Assessment of COVID-19 Hospitalizations by Race/Ethnicity in 12 States

Educational Objective
To understand the differences in hospitalization experiences for hospitalized COVID-19 patients based on race/ethnicity in 12 states
1 Credit CME

Given the reported health disparities in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection and mortality by race/ethnicity,1,2 there is an immediate need for increased assessment of the prevalence of COVID-19 across racial/ethnic subgroups of the population in the US. We examined the racial/ethnic prevalence of cumulative COVID-19 hospitalizations in the 12 states that report such data and compared how this prevalence differs from the racial/ethnic composition of each state’s population.

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Article Information

Corresponding Author: Pinar Karaca-Mandic, PhD, Carlson School of Management, Department of Finance, University of Minnesota, 321 19th Ave S, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (pkmandic@umn.edu).

Published Online: August 17, 2020. doi:10.1001/jamainternmed.2020.3857

Author Contributions: Dr Karaca-Mandic had full access to all of the data in the study and takes responsibility for the integrity of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis.

Concept and design: All authors.

Acquisition, analysis, or interpretation of data: All authors.

Drafting of the manuscript: Karaca-Mandic, Georgiou.

Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: All authors.

Statistical analysis: Karaca-Mandic, Georgiou.

Obtained funding: Karaca-Mandic.

Administrative, technical, or material support: All authors.

Supervision: Karaca-Mandic.

Conflict of Interest Disclosures: Dr Karaca-Mandic reported receiving funding from the University of Minnesota, Office of Academic Clinical Affairs and grants from United Health Foundation during the conduct of the study; personal fees from Tactile Medical, Precision Health Economics, and Sempre Health; and grants from the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, American Cancer Society, National Institute for Health Care Management, National Institute on Drug Abuse, and National Institutes of Health outside the submitted work. Dr Georgiou reported receiving personal fees from HealthGrades outside the submitted work. No other disclosures were reported.

Additional Information: This research uses publicly available data from the University of Minnesota COVID-19 Hospitalization Project, which is partially funded by the University of Minnesota Office of Academic Clinical Affairs and the United Health Foundation. Although the race and ethnicity breakdown of hospitalizations are not reported on the project website, data can be requested from the project team.

Additional Contributions: Yi Zhu, MA, Carlson School of Management, University of Minnesota, contributed to this project by helping launch the University of Minnesota COVID-19 Hospitalization Project website. Mr Zhu did not receive compensation. Zachary Levin, BA, School of Public Health, University of Minnesota, provided research assistance with data analysis.Khoa Vu, Applied Economics, University of Minnesota, provided research assistance with data collection. Messrs Levin and Vu were compensated as research assistants.

References
1.
Artiga  S , Orgera  K , Pham  O , Corallo  B . Growing data underscore that communities of color are being harder hit by COVID-19. Kaiser Family Foundation website. April 21, 2020. Accessed July 7, 2020. https://www.kff.org/coronavirus-policy-watch/growing-data-underscore-communities-color-harder-hit-covid-19/
2.
Mahajan  UV , Larkins-Pettigrew  M .  Racial demographics and COVID-19 confirmed cases and deaths: a correlational analysis of 2886 US counties.   J Public Health (Oxf). 2020;fdaa070. doi:10.1093/pubmed/fdaa070PubMedGoogle Scholar
3.
University of Minnesota, Carlson School of Management. COVID-19 hospitalization tracking project. https://carlsonschool.umn.edu/mili-misrc-covid19-tracking-project
4.
U.S. Census Bureau. Population estimates, 2018. Accessed March 29, 2020. https://www2.census.gov/programs-surveys/popest/datasets/2010-2018/counties/asrh/
5.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Hospitalization rates and characteristics of patients hospitalized with laboratory-confirmed Coronavirus disease 2019—COVID-NET, 14 States, March 1-30, 2020. Published April 17, 2020. Accessed May 29, 2020. https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/volumes/69/wr/mm6915e3.htm
6.
Azar  KMJ , Shen  Z , Romanelli  RJ ,  et al.  Disparities in outcomes among COVID-19 patients in a large health care system in California.   Health Aff (Millwood). Published online May 21, 2020;f202000598. doi:10.1377/hlthaff.2020.00598PubMedGoogle Scholar
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