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K-12 Virtual Schooling, COVID-19, and Student Success

Educational Objective
To understand how COVID-19 has affected K-12 schooling and student success
1 Credit CME

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has significantly affected K-12 education in 2020.1 To protect students and staff, as well as to flatten the infection curve, parents, teachers, and policy makers endorsed and implemented a modified version of homeschooling in the spring in the US and across the globe. Teachers used some form of paper mailings and electronic technology (eg, video conferencing, emailing) to deliver content to students, while parents assumed a coteaching responsibility. Most parents, schools, and teachers were unprepared and untrained to handle the complexities inherent to educating as well as the demands of the technology needed to support these efforts. Although teachers deserve high praise for their rapid response, the educational outcomes were unsatisfying, families were burdened, and most are hesitant to repeat the same format. As government officials attempt to plan for the fall, the American Academy of Pediatrics released a statement supporting the return to traditional school as soon as possible to preserve education and socialization while limiting the exacerbation of existing educational disparities for high-risk populations.2

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Article Information

Corresponding Author: Lindsay A. Thompson, MD, MS, General Pediatrics, University of Florida, 1699 SW 16th Ave, Gainesville, FL 32608 (lathom@ufl.edu)

Published Online: August 11, 2020. doi:10.1001/jamapediatrics.2020.3800

Conflict of Interest Disclosures: None reported.

References
1.
Dibner  KA , Schweingruber  HA , Christakis  DA .  Reopening K-12 schools during the COVID-19 pandemic: a report from the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine.   JAMA. Published online July 29, 2020. doi:10.1001/jama.2020.14745Google Scholar
2.
American Academy of Pediatrics. Covid-19 planning considerations: guidance for school re-entry. Critical Updates on COVID-19. Published June 25, 2020. Accessed July 13, 2020. https://services.aap.org/en/pages/2019-novel-coronavirus-covid-19-infections/clinical-guidance/covid-19-planning-considerations-return-to-in-person-education-in-schools/
3.
Snapshot 2019: A Review of K-12 Online, Blended, and Digital Learning. Digital Learning Collaborative. Published April 2019. Accessed July 13, 2020. https://static1.squarespace.com/static/59381b9a17bffc68bf625df4/t/5cae3c05652dea4d690f5315/1554922508490/DLC-KP-Snapshot2019_040819.pdf
4.
Molnar  A , Miron  G , Elgeberi  N ,  et al.  Virtual Schools in the US 2019. National Education Policy Center; 2019.
5.
Moore-Adams  BL , Jones  WM , Cohen  J .  Learning to teach online: a systematic review of the literature on K-12 teacher preparation for teaching online.   Distance Educ. 2016:37(3):333-348. doi:10.1080/01587919.2016.1232158Google ScholarCrossref
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Transforming Education Worldwide–One Student at a Time: Annual Report 2017-18. Florida Virtual School. Published December 2018. Accessed July 16, 2020. https://www.flvs.net/docs/default-source/district/flvs-annual-report.pdf?sfvrsn=9a487b2a_18
7.
Pulham  E , Graham  CR .  Comparing K-12 online and blended teaching competencies: a literature review.   Distance Educ. 2018:39(3):411-432. doi:10.1080/01587919.2018.1476840Google ScholarCrossref
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Harvey  D , Greer  D , Basham  J , Hu  B .  From the student perspective: experiences of middle and high school students in online learning.   Am J Distance Educ. 2014:28(1):14-26. doi:10.1080/08923647.2014.868739Google ScholarCrossref
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CAST. About universal design for learning. Accessed July 29, 2020. http://www.cast.org/our-work/about-udl.html#.XyH3KJ5KjIU
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Michigan Virtual Learning Research Institute. Parent guide to online learning. Accessed July 29, 2020. https://michiganvirtual.org/resources/guides/parent-guide/
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