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Operational Considerations on the American Academy of Pediatrics Guidance for K-12 School Reentry

Educational Objective
To understand the operational considerations needed to be taken in account before reopening K-12 schools
1 Credit CME

There is general consensus among experts that K-12 schools should aim to reopen for in-person classes during the 2020-2021 school year.1,2 Globally, children constitute a low proportion of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) cases and are far less likely than adults to experience serious illness.3,4 Yet, prolonged school closure can exacerbate socioeconomic disparities, amplify existing educational inequalities, and aggravate food insecurity, domestic violence, and mental health disorders.5 The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) recently published its guidance on K-12 school reentry.1 However, as many school districts face budgetary constraints, schools must evaluate their options and identify measures that are particularly important and feasible for their communities.

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Article Information

Corresponding Author: C. Jason Wang, MD, PhD, Stanford University School of Medicine, 117 Encina Commons, Stanford, CA 94305 (cjwang1@stanford.edu).

Published Online: August 11, 2020. doi:10.1001/jamapediatrics.2020.3871

Conflict of Interest Disclosures: None reported.

Additional Contributions: We thank Paul H. Wise, MD, MPH (Stanford University School of Medicine), for his suggestions on improving the manuscript. Dr Wise was not compensated.

References
1.
American Academy of Pediatrics. COVID-19 planning considerations: guidance for school re-entry. Accessed July 31, 2020. https://services.aap.org/en/pages/2019-novel-coronavirus-covid-19-infections/clinical-guidance/covid-19-planning-considerations-return-to-in-person-education-in-schools/
2.
Dibner  KA , Schweingruber  HA , Christakis  DA .  Reopening K-12 schools during the COVID-19 pandemic: a report from the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine.   JAMA. Published online July 29, 2020. doi:10.1001/jama.2020.14745Google Scholar
3.
Castagnoli  R , Votto  M , Licari  A ,  et al.  Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection in children and adolescents: a systematic review.   JAMA Pediatr. Published online April 22, 2020. doi:10.1001/jamapediatrics.2020.1467 PubMedGoogle Scholar
4.
Davies  NG , Klepac  P , Liu  Y , Prem  K , Jit  M , Eggo  RM ; CMMID COVID-19 working group.  Age-dependent effects in the transmission and control of COVID-19 epidemics.   Nat Med. Published online June 16, 2020. doi:10.1038/s41591-020-0962-9 PubMedGoogle Scholar
5.
Fry-Bowers  EK .  Children are at risk from COVID-19.   J Pediatr Nurs. 2020;53:A10-A12. doi:10.1016/j.pedn.2020.04.026 PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
6.
Lu  X , Zhang  L , Du  H ,  et al; Chinese Pediatric Novel Coronavirus Study Team.  SARS-CoV-2 infection in children.   N Engl J Med. 2020;382(17):1663-1665. doi:10.1056/NEJMc2005073 PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
7.
Chu  DK , Akl  EA , Duda  S , Solo  K , Yaacoub  S , Schünemann  HJ ; COVID-19 Systematic Urgent Review Group Effort (SURGE) study authors.  Physical distancing, face masks, and eye protection to prevent person-to-person transmission of SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19: a systematic review and meta-analysis.   Lancet. 2020;395(10242):1973-1987. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(20)31142-9 PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
8.
Yelin  I , Aharony  N , Shaer Tamar  E ,  et al.  Evaluation of COVID-19 RT-qPCR test in multi-sample pools.   Clin Infect Dis. 2020;ciaa531. doi:10.1093/cid/ciaa531 PubMedGoogle Scholar
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