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An Inactivated Virus Candidate Vaccine to Prevent COVID-19

Educational Objective
To understand how an inactivate virus vaccine can be used to prevent COVID-19
1 Credit CME

The global struggle against coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is now in its eighth month since the pandemic virus, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), first emerged. The severe economic, personal, and psychological adverse effects of shutdowns and social distancing make these effective preventive measures challenging to sustain long-term. In 1999, just before the launch of a new millennium, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention listed vaccines as the most important public health achievement of the 20th century.1 According to one estimate, more than 42 000 children’s lives are saved annually as a result of the US programs of routine childhood immunizations.2 Safe and effective COVID-19 vaccines could lead to a level of global immunity that stops the pandemic. This is the anti–COVID-19 intervention most public health leaders and many people long for the most.

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Article Information

Corresponding Author: Mark J. Mulligan, MD, NYU Grossman School of Medicine, Alexandria Center for Life Sciences (West Tower), 430 E 29th St, Room 304, New York, NY 10016 (mark.mulligan@nyulangone.org).

Published Online: August 13, 2020. doi:10.1001/jama.2020.15539

Conflict of Interest Disclosures: Dr Mulligan reported receiving grants from the National Institutes of Health/National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, Eli Lilly, Pfizer, and Sanofi and personal fees from Meissa Vaccines.

References
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Zhu  FC , Li  YH , Guan  XH ,  et al.  Safety, tolerability, and immunogenicity of a recombinant adenovirus type-5 vectored COVID-19 vaccine: a dose-escalation, open-label, non-randomised, first-in-human trial.   Lancet. 2020;395(10240):1845-1854. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(20)31208-3PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
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Zhu  FC , Guan  XH , Li  YH ,  et al.  Immunogenicity and safety of a recombinant adenovirus type-5-vectored COVID-19 vaccine in healthy adults aged 18 years or older: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 2 trial.   Lancet. Published online July 20, 2020. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(20)31605-6PubMedGoogle Scholar
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Mulligan  MJ , Lyke  KE , Kitchin  N ,  et al.  Phase 1/2 study of COVID-19 RNA vaccine BNT162b1 in adults.   Nature. Published online August 12, 2020. doi:10.1038/s41586-020-2639-4Google Scholar
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Food and Drug Administration. Development and licensure of vaccines to prevent COVID-19: guidance for industry. Published June 2020. Accessed August 10, 2020. https://www.fda.gov/regulatory-information/search-fda-guidance-documents/development-and-licensure-vaccines-prevent-covid-19
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Xia  S , Duan  K , Zhang  Y ,  et al.  Effect of an inactivated vaccine against SARS-CoV-2 on safety and immunogenicity outcomes: interim analysis of 2 randomized clinical trials.   JAMA. Published August 13, 2020. doi:10.1001/jama.2020.15543Google Scholar
11.
Kim  HW , Canchola  JG , Brandt  CD ,  et al.  Respiratory syncytial virus disease in infants despite prior administration of antigenic inactivated vaccine.   Am J Epidemiol. 1969;89(4):422-434. doi:10.1093/oxfordjournals.aje.a120955PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
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Fulginiti  VA , Eller  JJ , Downie  AW , Kempe  CH .  Altered reactivity to measles virus: atypical measles in children previously immunized with inactivated measles virus vaccines.   JAMA. 1967;202(12):1075-1080. doi:10.1001/jama.1967.03130250057008PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
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Graham  BS .  Rapid COVID-19 vaccine development.   Science. 2020;368(6494):945-946. doi:10.1126/science.abb8923PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
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