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What is the minimum contact time of povidone-iodine (PVP-I) nasal antiseptic required for inactivation of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in vitro?
In this controlled in vitro laboratory research study, test media infected with SARS-CoV-2 demonstrated complete inactivation of SARS-CoV-2 by concentrations of PVP-I nasal antiseptic as low as 0.5% after 15 seconds of contact, as measured by a log reduction value of greater than 3 log10 of the 50% cell culture infectious dose of the virus.
Intranasal PVP-I rapidly inactivates SARS-CoV-2 and may play an adjunctive role in mitigating viral transmission beyond personal protective equipment.
Research is needed to demonstrate the efficacy of nasal povidone-iodine (PVP-I) against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2).
To evaluate the in vitro efficacy of PVP-I nasal antiseptic for the inactivation of SARS-CoV-2 at clinically significant contact times of 15 and 30 seconds.
The SARS-CoV-2, USA-WA1/2020 strain, virus stock was tested against nasal antiseptic solutions consisting of aqueous PVP-I as the sole active ingredient. Povidone-iodine was tested at diluted concentrations of 0.5%, 1.25%, and 2.5% and compared with controls. The test solutions and virus were incubated at mean (SD) room temperature of 22 (2) °C for time periods of 15 and 30 seconds.
Design and Setting
This controlled in vitro laboratory research study used 3 different concentrations of study solution and ethanol, 70%, as a positive control on test media infected with SARS-CoV-2. Test media without virus were added to 2 tubes of the compounds to serve as toxicity and neutralization controls. Ethanol, 70%, was tested in parallel as a positive control and water only as a negative control.
Main Outcomes and Measures
The primary study outcome measurement was the log reduction value after 15 seconds and 30 seconds of given treatment. Surviving virus from each sample was quantified by standard end point dilution assay, and the log reduction value of each compound was compared with the negative (water) control.
Povidone-iodine nasal antiseptics at concentrations (0.5%, 1.25%, and 2.5%) completely inactivated SARS-CoV-2 within 15 seconds of contact as measured by log reduction value of greater than 3 log10 of the 50% cell culture infectious dose of the virus. The ethanol, 70%, positive control did not completely inactivate SARS-CoV-2 after 15 seconds of contact. The nasal antiseptics tested performed better than the standard positive control routinely used for in vitro assessment of anti–SARS-CoV-2 agents at a contact time of 15 seconds. No cytotoxic effects on cells were observed after contact with each of the nasal antiseptics tested.
Conclusions and Relevance
Povidone-iodine nasal antiseptic solutions at concentrations as low as 0.5% rapidly inactivate SARS-CoV-2 at contact times as short as 15 seconds. Intranasal use of PVP-I has demonstrated safety at concentrations of 1.25% and below and may play an adjunctive role in mitigating viral transmission beyond personal protective equipment.
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CME Disclosure Statement: Unless noted, all individuals in control of content reported no relevant financial relationships. If applicable, all relevant financial relationships have been mitigated.
Accepted for Publication: July 29, 2020.
Corresponding Author: Samantha Frank, MD, Division of Otolaryngology−Head and Neck Surgery, Department of Surgery, University of Connecticut School of Medicine, 263 Farmington Ave, Farmington, CT 06030 (firstname.lastname@example.org).
Published Online: September 17, 2020. doi:10.1001/jamaoto.2020.3053
Author Contributions: Drs Frank, Capriotti, and Tessema had full access to all of the data in the study and take responsibility for the integrity of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis.
Concept and design: All authors.
Acquisition, analysis, or interpretation of data: Frank, Capriotti, Westover, Tessema.
Drafting of the manuscript: Frank, Capriotti, Pelletier, Tessema.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: Frank, Brown, Capriotti, Westover, Tessema.
Statistical analysis: Capriotti, Westover.
Obtained funding: Capriotti.
Administrative, technical, or material support: Brown, Capriotti, Westover, Tessema.
Supervision: Brown, Capriotti, Westover, Pelletier, Tessema.
Conflict of Interest Disclosures: Dr Brown reported personal financial investment in Halodine outside the submitted work. Dr Capriotti is the executive director of Veloce BioPharma and reported a patent to multiple related drugs issued and licensed by Veloce BioPharma. Dr Pelletier is a consultant for Veloce BioPharma and reported equity in both Veloce BioPharma and Halodine. Dr Tessema reported personal financial investment in Halodine outside the submitted work, and has a patent to multiple drug products pending. No other disclosures were reported.
Funding/Support: The funding for the laboratory materials used in this study was supplied by Veloce BioPharma.
Role of the Funder/Sponsor: Veloce BioPharma had no role in the design and conduct of the study; collection, management, analysis, and interpretation of the data; preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript; and decision to submit the manuscript for publication. However, the individual authors listed who are related to Veloce BioPharma did assist with design of the study and review of the manuscript.
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