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Racism, Not Race, Drives Inequity Across the COVID-19 Continuum

Educational Objective
To understand that racism, not race, drives inequality across the COVID-19 continuum
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CME Disclosure Statement: Unless noted, all individuals in control of content reported no relevant financial relationships. If applicable, all relevant financial relationships have been mitigated.

Article Information

Published: September 25, 2020. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2020.19933

Open Access: This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the CC-BY License. © 2020 Khazanchi R et al. JAMA Network Open.

Corresponding Author: Jasmine R. Marcelin, MD, Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Nebraska Medical Center, 985400 Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE 68198-5400 (jasmine.marcelin@unmc.edu).

Conflict of Interest Disclosures: Dr Evans reported consulting for BioK+. No other disclosures were reported.

References
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US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. COVID-19 hospitalization and death by race/ethnicity. Published August 18, 2020. Accessed August 23, 2020. https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/covid-data/investigations-discovery/hospitalization-death-by-race-ethnicity.html
2.
Khazanchi  R , Beiter  ER , Gondi  S , Beckman  AL , Bilinski  A , Ganguli  I .  County-level association of social vulnerability with COVID-19 cases and deaths in the USA.   J Gen Intern Med. Published online June 23, 2020. doi:10.1007/s11606-020-05882-3PubMedGoogle Scholar
3.
Kabarriti  R , Brodin  NP , Maron  MI ,  et al.  Association of race and ethnicity with comorbidities and survival among patients with COVID-19 at an urban medical center in New York.   JAMA Netw Open. 2020;3(9):e2019795. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2020.19795Google Scholar
4.
Muñoz-Price  LS , Nattinger  AB , Rivera  F ,  et al.  Racial disparities in incidence and outcomes among patients with COVID-19.   JAMA Netw Open. 2020;3(9):e2021892. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2020.21892Google Scholar
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Yehia  BR , Winegar  A , Fogel  R ,  et al.  Association of race with mortality among patients hospitalized with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) at 92 US hospitals.   JAMA Netw Open. 2020;3(8):e2018039. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2020.18039PubMedGoogle Scholar
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Chen  JT , Waterman  PD , Krieger  N . COVID-19 and the unequal surge in mortality rates in Massachusetts, by city/town and zip code measures of poverty, household crowding, race/ethnicity, and racialized economic segregation. Published May 9, 2020. Accessed August 22, 2020. https://tinyurl.com/y7qzot3l
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US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Excess deaths associated with COVID-19. Published August 19, 2020. Accessed August 23, 2020. https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/nvss/vsrr/covid19/excess_deaths.htm
8.
Boyd  RW , Lindo  EG , Weeks  LD , McLemore  MR . On racism: a new standard for publishing on racial health inequities. Health Affairs Blog. Published July 2, 2020. Accessed August 31, 2020. https://www.healthaffairs.org/do/10.1377/hblog20200630.939347/full/
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Laster Pirtle  WN .  Racial capitalism: a fundamental cause of novel coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic inequities in the United States.   Health Educ Behav. 2020;47(4):504-508. doi:10.1177/1090198120922942PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
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Metzl  JM , Maybank  A , De Maio  F .  Responding to the COVID-19 pandemic: the need for a structurally competent health care system.   JAMA. 2020;324(3):231-232. doi:10.1001/jama.2020.9289PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
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