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Excess Deaths From COVID-19, Community Bereavement, and Restorative Justice for Communities of Color

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Article Information

Corresponding Author: Lisa A. Cooper, MD, MPH, Johns Hopkins Center for Health Equity, 2024 E Monument St, Ste 2-500, Baltimore, MD 21287 (lisa.cooper@jhmi.edu).

Published Online: October 12, 2020. doi:10.1001/jama.2020.19567

Conflict of Interest Disclosures: None reported.

References
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Johns Hopkins Coronavirus Resource Center. Accessed September 28, 2020. https://coronavirus.jhu.edu/
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Lu  D . The true coronavirus toll in the U.S. has already surpassed 200,000. New York Times. August 12, 2020. Accessed September 14, 2020. https://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2020/08/12/us/covid-deaths-us.html
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Woolf  SH , Chapman  DA , Sabo  RT , Weinberger  DM , Hill  L , Taylor  DDH .  Excess deaths from COVID-19 and other causes, March-July 2020.   JAMA. Published online October 20, 2020. doi:10.1001/jama.2020.19545 PubMedGoogle Scholar
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APM Research Lab. The color of coronavirus: COVID-19 deaths by race and ethnicity in the U.S. September 16, 2020. Accessed September 24, 2020. https://www.apmresearchlab.org/covid/deaths-by-race
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Jackman  MR , Shauman  KA .  The toll of inequality: excess African American deaths in the United States over the twentieth century.   DuBois Rev. 2019;16(2):291-340. doi:10.1017/S1742058X20000028Google Scholar
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Williams  DR , Lawrence  JA , Davis  BA .  Racism and health: evidence and needed research.   Annu Rev Public Health. 2019;40:105-125. doi:10.1146/annurev-publhealth-040218-043750 PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
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Mapping police violence. Accessed September 15, 2020. https://mappingpoliceviolence.org/nationaltrends
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Bor  J , Venkataramani  AS , Williams  DR , Tsai  AC .  Police killings and their spillover effects on the mental health of black Americans: a population-based, quasi-experimental study.   Lancet. 2018;392(10144):302-310. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(18)31130-9 PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
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Umberson  D , Olson  JS , Crosnoe  R , Liu  H , Pudrovska  T , Donnelly  R .  Death of family members as an overlooked source of racial disadvantage in the United States.   Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2017;114(5):915-920. doi:10.1073/pnas.1605599114 PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
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Krishnan  L , Ogunwole  SM , Cooper  LA .  Historical insights on coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), the 1918 influenza pandemic, and racial disparities: illuminating a path forward.   Ann Intern Med. 2020;173(6):474-481. doi:10.7326/M20-2223 PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
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