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Excess Deaths From COVID-19, Community Bereavement, and Restorative Justice for Communities of Color

Educational Objective
To identify the key insights or developments described in this article
1 Credit CME

The number of reported deaths from coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in the US was nearly 205 000 on September 28, 2020.1 A month earlier, on August 13, 2020, a New York Times analysis of estimates from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention reported that across the US, at least 200 000 more people had died than expected (based on rates in the past 5 years), between March and late July, and that these estimated deaths were approximately 60 000 higher than the number of deaths that were directly linked to the coronavirus.2

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Article Information

Corresponding Author: Lisa A. Cooper, MD, MPH, Johns Hopkins Center for Health Equity, 2024 E Monument St, Ste 2-500, Baltimore, MD 21287 (lisa.cooper@jhmi.edu).

Published Online: October 12, 2020. doi:10.1001/jama.2020.19567

Conflict of Interest Disclosures: None reported.

References
1.
Johns Hopkins Coronavirus Resource Center. Accessed September 28, 2020. https://coronavirus.jhu.edu/
2.
Lu  D . The true coronavirus toll in the U.S. has already surpassed 200,000. New York Times. August 12, 2020. Accessed September 14, 2020. https://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2020/08/12/us/covid-deaths-us.html
3.
Woolf  SH , Chapman  DA , Sabo  RT , Weinberger  DM , Hill  L , Taylor  DDH .  Excess deaths from COVID-19 and other causes, March-July 2020.   JAMA. Published online October 20, 2020. doi:10.1001/jama.2020.19545 PubMedGoogle Scholar
4.
APM Research Lab. The color of coronavirus: COVID-19 deaths by race and ethnicity in the U.S. September 16, 2020. Accessed September 24, 2020. https://www.apmresearchlab.org/covid/deaths-by-race
5.
Jackman  MR , Shauman  KA .  The toll of inequality: excess African American deaths in the United States over the twentieth century.   DuBois Rev. 2019;16(2):291-340. doi:10.1017/S1742058X20000028Google Scholar
6.
Williams  DR , Lawrence  JA , Davis  BA .  Racism and health: evidence and needed research.   Annu Rev Public Health. 2019;40:105-125. doi:10.1146/annurev-publhealth-040218-043750 PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
7.
Mapping police violence. Accessed September 15, 2020. https://mappingpoliceviolence.org/nationaltrends
8.
Bor  J , Venkataramani  AS , Williams  DR , Tsai  AC .  Police killings and their spillover effects on the mental health of black Americans: a population-based, quasi-experimental study.   Lancet. 2018;392(10144):302-310. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(18)31130-9 PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
9.
Umberson  D , Olson  JS , Crosnoe  R , Liu  H , Pudrovska  T , Donnelly  R .  Death of family members as an overlooked source of racial disadvantage in the United States.   Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2017;114(5):915-920. doi:10.1073/pnas.1605599114 PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
10.
Krishnan  L , Ogunwole  SM , Cooper  LA .  Historical insights on coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), the 1918 influenza pandemic, and racial disparities: illuminating a path forward.   Ann Intern Med. 2020;173(6):474-481. doi:10.7326/M20-2223 PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
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