Accepted for Publication: August 4, 2020.
Corresponding Author: Matthew J. Schipper, PhD, Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, 1415 Washington Heights, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (email@example.com).
Published Online: October 29, 2020. doi:10.1001/jamaoncol.2020.5403
Author Contributions: Ms Hartman and Dr Schipper had full access to all of the data in the study and take responsibility for the integrity of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis. Drs Schipper and Spratt contributed equally.
Concept and design: Hartman, Dess, Jackson, Morris, Li, Zaorsky, Schipper, Spratt.
Acquisition, analysis, or interpretation of data: Hartman, Sun, Devasia, Chase, Jairath, Dess, Jackson, Morris, Hochstedler, Abbott, Kidwell, Walter, M. Wang, X. Wang, Zaorsky, Schipper, Spratt.
Drafting of the manuscript: Hartman, Sun, Devasia, Hochstedler, Kidwell, Schipper, Spratt.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: All authors.
Statistical analysis: Hartman, Sun, Devasia, Chase, Jairath, Morris, Kidwell, M. Wang, X. Wang, Zaorsky, Schipper.
Obtained funding: Spratt.
Administrative, technical, or material support: Zaorsky, Spratt.
Supervision: Dess, Jackson, Kidwell, Schipper, Spratt.
Conflict of Interest Disclosures: Dr Zaorsky reported receiving grants from the American Cancer Society–CEOs Against Cancer Tri State chapter for clinician scientist development, the National Institutes of Health, the Penn State Cancer Institute, and the Penn State College of Medicine; remuneration from Springer Nature for a published textbook; and personal fees from Weatherby Healthcare outside the submitted work. Dr Schipper reported receiving personal fees from Innovative Analytics outside the submitted work. Dr Spratt reported receiving grants from Janssen Pharmaceuticals and personal fees from AstraZeneca, Blue Earth Diagnostics, and Janssen Pharmaceuticals outside the submitted work. No other disclosures were reported.
Funding/Support: This study was supported by grants P30-CA046592, P50-CA186786, T32-CA083654, and NSF DGE-1256260 from the National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, and National Science Foundation.
Role of the Funder/Sponsor: The funders had no role in the design and conduct of the study; collection, management, analysis, and interpretation of the data; preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript; and decision to submit the manuscript for publication.
F , Ferlay
J , Soerjomataram
I , Siegel
RL , Torre
LA , Jemal
A . Global cancer statistics 2018: GLOBOCAN estimates of incidence and mortality worldwide for 36 cancers in 185 countries. CA Cancer J Clin
. 2018;68(6):394-424. doi:10.3322/caac.21492PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
GR , Leong
DP , Rangarajan
et al. Variations in common diseases, hospital admissions, and deaths in middle-aged adults in 21 countries from five continents (PURE): a prospective cohort study. Lancet
. 2020;395(10226):785-794. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(19)32007-0PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
AA , Tullio
K , Elson
et al. Time to initial cancer treatment in the United States and association with survival over time: an observational study. PLoS One
. 2019;14(3):e0213209. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0213209PubMedGoogle Scholar
H , Mariotto
AB , Mann
BS , Klabunde
CN , Feuer
EJ . Assessing non–cancer-related health status of US cancer patients: other-cause survival and comorbidity prevalence. Am J Epidemiol
. 2013;178(3):339-349. doi:10.1093/aje/kws580PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
S , Hirsch
JS , Narasimhan
et al; the Northwell COVID-19 Research Consortium. Presenting characteristics, comorbidities, and outcomes among 5700 patients hospitalized with COVID-19 in the New York City area. JAMA
. 2020;323(20):2052-2059. doi:10.1001/jama.2020.6775PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
DJ , Palma
D , Guckenberger
et al. Practice recommendations for risk-adapted head and neck cancer radiotherapy during the COVID-19 pandemic: an ASTRO-ESTRO consensus statement. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys
. 2020;107(4):618-627. doi:10.1016/j.ijrobp.2020.04.016PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
M , Backhus
L , Boffa
et al; Thoracic Surgery Outcomes Research Network, Inc. COVID-19 guidance for triage of operations for thoracic malignancies: a consensus statement from Thoracic Surgery Outcomes Research Network. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg
. 2020;160(2):601-605. doi:10.1016/j.jtcvs.2020.03.061PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
Johns Hopkins University Center for Systems Science and Engineering. COVID-19 data repository by the Center for Systems Science and Engineering (CSSE) at Johns Hopkins University. Center for Systems Science and Engineering, Johns Hopkins University. Accessed April 15, 2020. https://github.com/CSSEGISandData/COVID-19
World Health Organization. Considerations for Quarantine of Individuals in the Context of Containment for Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19): Interim Guidance, 29 February 2020. World Health Organization; 2020. Accessed April 15, 2020. https://apps.who.int/iris/handle/10665/331299
C , Liu
L , Hao
et al Evolving epidemiology and impact of non-pharmaceutical interventions on the outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 in Wuhan, China. Preprint. Posted online March 6, 2020. medRxiv. doi:10.1101/2020.03.03.20030593
X , Ferro
EG , Zhou
G , Hashimoto
D , Bhatt
DL . Association between universal masking in a health care system and SARS-CoV-2 positivity among health care workers. JAMA
. 2020;324(7):703-704. doi:10.1001/jama.2020.12897PubMedGoogle Scholar
LH , Drew
DA , Joshi
et al. Risk of COVID-19 among frontline healthcare workers and the general community: a prospective cohort study. Preprint. Posted online May 25, 2020. medRxiv. doi:10.1101/2020.04.29.20084111
Y , Cheng
SR . Estimating preventable COVID-19 infections related to elective outpatient surgery in Washington state: a quantitative model. Preprint. Posted online March 27, 2020. medRxiv. doi:10.1101/2020.03.18.20037952
T , Chu
Q , Yu
et al. History of coronary heart disease increases the mortality rate of COVID-19 patients: a nested case-control study. Preprint. Posted online April 3, 2020. medRxiv. doi:10.1101/2020.03.23.20041848
The Novel Coronavirus Pneumonia Emergency Response Epidemiology Team. The epidemiological characteristics of an outbreak of 2019 novel coronavirus diseases (COVID-19)—China, 2020. China CDC Weekly
. 2020;2:1-10. doi:10.1136/bmjopen-2020-038976Google ScholarCrossref
WJ , Liang
WH , Zhao
et al; China Medical Treatment Expert Group for COVID-19. Comorbidity and its impact on 1590 patients with COVID-19 in China: a nationwide analysis. Eur Respir J
. 2020;55(5):2000547. doi:10.1183/13993003.00547-2020PubMedGoogle Scholar
M , Le Calvez
K , Mi
E , Chen
J , Dadhania
S , Pakzad-Shahabi
L . Estimating the risks from COVID-19 infection in adult chemotherapy patients. Preprint. Posted online March 20, 2020. medRxiv. doi:10.1101/2020.03.18.20038067
RM , Gail
MH . Absolute Risk: Methods and Applications in Clinical Management and Public Health. Chapman and Hall/CRC; 2017.
AP , Delos Santos
S , Parshad
S , Everest
L , Cheung
MC , Chan
KK . Quantifying the survival benefits of oncology drugs with a focus on immunotherapy using restricted mean survival time. J Natl Compr Canc Netw
. 2020;18(3):278-285. doi:10.6004/jnccn.2019.7362