While coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is predominantly self-limited, up to 20% of symptomatic individuals will progress to severe or critical disease with clinical manifestations including pneumonia, acute respiratory distress syndrome, multiorgan system dysfunction, hypercoagulation, and hyperinflammatory manifestations. There have been more than 47 million cases of COVID-19 globally resulting in more than 1.2 million deaths. Additionally, a growing body of data suggests that some patients with COVID-19, including individuals with mild symptoms, will have a variably prolonged course of recovery including fatigue, cognitive impairment, and cardiopulmonary dysfunction.1 While treatment options for patients with severe disease requiring hospitalization are now available, with corticosteroids emerging as the treatment of choice for critically ill patients, interventions that can be administered early during the course of infection to prevent disease progression and longer-term complications are urgently needed.2,3
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Corresponding Author: Peter S. Kim, MD, Therapeutics Research Program, Division of AIDS, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, 5601 Fishers Ln, Bethesda, MD 20892 (email@example.com).
Published Online: November 11, 2020. doi:10.1001/jama.2020.22813
Conflict of Interest Disclosures: Dr Kim reported serving as the National Institutes of Health (NIH) lead for the ACTIV-2 trial but has no financial relationship with the trial. No other disclosures were reported.
Additional Information: Dr Kim is Director of the Therapeutics Research Program in the Division of AIDS (DAIDS) of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) at the NIH; Dr Read is Deputy Director of DAIDS; and Dr Fauci is Director, NIAID.
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