Accepted for Publication: October 24, 2020.
Published Online: December 21, 2020. doi:10.1001/jamainternmed.2020.7497
Corresponding Author: Thuy D. Nguyen, PhD, Department of Health Management and Policy, School of Public Health, University of Michigan, 1415 Washington Heights, M3234 SPH II, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (email@example.com).
Author Contributions: Dr Nguyen had full access to all of the data in the study and takes responsibility for the integrity of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis.
Concept and design: Nguyen, Gupta, Ziedan, Simon.
Acquisition, analysis, or interpretation of data: All authors.
Drafting of the manuscript: Nguyen, Gupta, Ziedan, Simon, Stein.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: All authors.
Statistical analysis: Nguyen, Gupta, Ziedan.
Administrative, technical, or material support: Simon.
Conflict of Interest Disclosures: Dr Alexander reported being a past chair of the US Food and Drug Administration’s Peripheral and Central Nervous System Advisory Committee; serving as a paid adviser to IQVIA; being a cofounding principal and equity holder in Monument Analytics, a health care consultancy whose clients include the life sciences industry as well as plaintiffs in opioid litigation; and being a member of OptumRx's National P&T Committee. No other disclosures were reported.
Funding/Support: Dr Stein was supported by grant 1R01DA045800-01 from the National Institute on Drug Abuse during the conduct of the study.
Role of the Funder/Sponsor: The data sponsor was not involved in the design and conduct of the study; collection, management, analysis, and interpretation of the data; or preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript.
Disclaimer: The statements, findings, conclusions, views, and opinions contained and expressed herein are not necessarily those of Symphony Health or any of its affiliated or subsidiary entities.
Additional Information: The data, technology, and services used in the generation of these research findings were supplied pro bono by the COVID-19 Research Database partners, who are acknowledged at https://covid19researchdatabase.org.