Corresponding Author: Jeremy Samuel Faust, MD, MS, Brigham and Women’s Hospital Department of Emergency Medicine, 10 Vining St, Boston, MA 02115 (firstname.lastname@example.org).
Accepted for Publication: November 18, 2020.
Published Online: December 16, 2020. doi:10.1001/jama.2020.24243
Author Contributions: Dr Faust had full access to all of the data in the study and takes responsibility for the integrity of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis.
Concept and design: Faust, Lin, Mayes, Gilman, Walensky.
Acquisition, analysis, or interpretation of data: Faust, Krumholz, Du, Lin, Mayes, Walensky.
Drafting of the manuscript: Faust, Mayes, Gilman, Walensky.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: Faust, Krumholz, Du, Lin, Walensky.
Statistical analysis: Faust, Du, Lin, Mayes.
Obtained funding: Walensky.
Administrative, technical, or material support: Mayes, Walensky.
Supervision: Faust, Lin, Gilman.
Conflict of Interest Disclosures: Dr Krumholz reported receiving personal fees from UnitedHealth, IBM Watson Health, Element Science, Aetna, Facebook, Siegfried & Jensen Law Firm, Arnold & Porter Law Firm, Martin/Baughman Law Firm, F-Prime, and the National Center for Cardiovascular Diseases, Beijing; being a cofounder of HugoHealth, a personal health information platform, and Refactor Health, an enterprise health care artificial intelligence–augmented data management company; receiving contracts from the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services, through Yale New Haven Hospital, to develop and maintain measures of hospital performance; and receiving grants from Medtronic, the US Food and Drug Administration, Johnson & Johnson, and Shenzhen Center for Health Information outside the submitted work. Dr Lin reported working under contract with the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services to develop quality measures. Dr Walensky reported receiving grants from the Mass General Research Institute as the Steven and Deborah Gorlin MGH Research Scholar during the conduct of the study. No other disclosures were reported.
Additional Contributions: We thank Lauren M. Rossen, PhD, MS (National Center for Health Statistics), for facilitating the public release of National Center for Health Statistics data used for this study and for providing expertise on excess death determination and Michael Colin Tasi, MD, MBA (Harvard Affiliated Emergency Medicine Residency), for assistance in supporting data preparation. Neither individual received compensation for their contributions.