Corresponding Author: Ashley H. Hirai, PhD, Office of Epidemiology and Research, Maternal and Child Health Bureau, Health Resources and Services Administration, 5600 Fishers Ln, Rockville, MD 20857 (email@example.com).
Accepted for Publication: December 2, 2020.
Correction: This article was corrected on June 8, 2021, to correct an error in the Supplement that inadvertently included 2 “in remission” International Classification of Disease, 10th Revision, Clinical Modification codes. An updated Supplement has been provided.
Author Contributions: Drs Owens and Hirai had full access to all of the data in the study and take responsibility for the integrity of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis.
Concept and design: All authors.
Acquisition, analysis, or interpretation of data: Hirai, Ko, Owens, Patrick.
Drafting of the manuscript: Hirai, Ko.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: All authors.
Statistical analysis: Hirai, Ko, Owens, Patrick.
Administrative, technical, or material support: Hirai, Owens, Stocks.
Conflict of Interest Disclosures: Dr Patrick reported receiving grants from the National Institute on Drug Abuse, the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Innovation, the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, The Boedecker Foundation, and the National Institute on Child Health and Human Development outside the submitted work. No other disclosures were reported.
Funding/Support: No extramural funding was provided for this work. This research was conducted as part of a collaboration between the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and the Health Resources and Services Administration. Data collection and manipulation for this research was supported, in part, by the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project contract No. HHSA-290-2018-00001-C (awarded to IBM Watson Health).
Role of the Sponsor: The Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality sponsors had a role in the design and conduct of the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project and in the collection and management of the data. The manuscript underwent clearance within the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and the Health Resources and Services Administration prior to submission. However, no agency had a role in the preparation of the manuscript or in the decision to submit the manuscript for publication.
Disclaimer: The findings and conclusions in this report are those of the authors and do not necessarily represent the official position of the US Department of Health and Human Services, the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the Health Resources and Services Administration, or the US Public Health Service.
Additional Contributions: The authors gratefully acknowledge Marguerite Barrett, MS (M.L. Barrett, Inc, subcontractor to IBM Watson Health), and Minya Sheng, MS (IBM Watson Health), for assistance in programming and data management, who received compensation through a contract (HHSA-290-2018-00001-C) awarded to IBM Watson Health, and the 48 HCUP Partner organizations that contributed to the HCUP National Inpatient Sample and State Inpatient Databases used in this analysis: Alaska State Hospital and Nursing Home Association, Arizona Department of Health Services, Arkansas Department of Health, California Office of Statewide Health Planning and Development, Colorado Hospital Association, Connecticut Hospital Association, Delaware Delware Department of Health and Social Services, District of Columbia Hospital Association, Florida Agency for Health Care Administration, Georgia Hospital Association, Hawaii Laulima Data Alliance, a subsidiary of the Healthcare Association of Hawaii (and Hawaii Health Information Corporation), Illinois Department of Public Health, Indiana Hospital Association, Iowa Hospital Association, Kansas Hospital Association, Kentucky Cabinet for Health and Family Services, Louisiana Department of Health, Maine Health Data Organization, Maryland Health Services Cost Review Commission, Massachusetts Center for Health Information and Analysis, Michigan Health & Hospital Association, Minnesota Hospital Association, Mississippi State Department of Health, Missouri Hospital Industry Data Institute, Montana Hospital Association, Nebraska Hospital Association, Nevada Department of Health and Human Services, New Jersey Department of Health, New Mexico Department of Health, New York State Department of Health, North Carolina Department of Health and Human Services, North Dakota (data provided by the Minnesota Hospital Association), Ohio Hospital Association, Oklahoma State Department of Health, Oregon Association of Hospitals and Health Systems, Pennsylvania Health Care Cost Containment Council, Rhode Island Department of Health, South Carolina Revenue and Fiscal Affairs Office, South Dakota Association of Healthcare Organizations, Tennessee Hospital Association, Texas Department of State Health Services, Utah Department of Health, Vermont Association of Hospitals and Health Systems, Virginia Health Information, Washington State Department of Health, West Virginia Health Care Authority, Wisconsin Department of Health Services, and Wyoming Hospital Association.
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