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The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has highlighted the available mechanisms for funding research, development, manufacturing, and distribution in the life sciences. The traditional innovation strategy started with scientific discovery supported by grants from governmental and philanthropic sources, followed by product commercialization supported by pharmaceutical industry revenues and capital investments. According to one estimate, governmental and philanthropic grants fund approximately one-third of the total investment in the life sciences (estimated total investment of $194.2 billion in 2018) and the life sciences industry funds the remainder.1
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Corresponding Author: James C. Robinson, PhD, MPH, School of Public Health, University of California, 2121 Berkeley Way, Room 5423, Berkeley, CA 94720 (firstname.lastname@example.org).
Published Online: January 14, 2021. doi:10.1001/jama.2020.25384
Conflict of Interest Disclosures: None reported.
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