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Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities Related to COVID-19

Educational Objective
To identify the key insights or developments described in this article

One of the most disturbing aspects of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic in the US is the disproportionate harm that it has caused to historically marginalized groups. Black, Hispanic, and Asian people have substantially higher rates of infection, hospitalization, and death compared with White people.1,2 According to an analysis by the Kaiser Family Foundation and the Epic Health Research Network, based on data from the Epic health record system for 7 million Black patients, 5.1 million Hispanic patients, 1.4 million Asian patients, and 34.1 million White patients, as of July 20, 2020, the hospitalization rates and death rates per 10 000, respectively, were 24.6 and 5.6 for Black patients, 30.4 and 5.6 for Hispanic patients, 15.9 and 4.3 for Asian patients, and 7.4 and 2.3 for White patients.2 American Indian persons living in the US also have been disproportionately affected by COVID-19.1

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Article Information

Corresponding Author: Mitchell H. Katz, MD, New York City Health + Hospitals, 125 Worth St, New York, NY 10013 (mitchell.katz@nychhc.org).

Published Online: January 22, 2021. doi:10.1001/jama.2020.26443

Conflict of Interest Disclosures: None reported.

References
1.
US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. COVID-19 cases, data, and surveillance: hospitalization and death by race/ethnicity. Accessed October 12, 2020. https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/covid-data/investigations-discovery/hospitalization-death-by-race-ethnicity.html
2.
Rubin-Miller  L , Alban  C , Artiga  S , Sullivan  S . COVID-19 racial disparities in testing, infection, hospitalization, and death: analysis of Epic data. Published September 16, 2020. Accessed October 12, 2020. https://www.kff.org/coronavirus-covid-19/issue-brief/covid-19-racial-disparities-testing-infection-hospitalization-death-analysis-epic-patient-data/
3.
McCormack  G , Avery  C , Spitzer  AKL , Chandra  A .  Economic vulnerability of households with essential workers.   JAMA. 2020;324(4):388-390. doi:10.1001/jama.2020.11366PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
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Gangopadhyaya  A , Karpman  M , Aarons  J . As COVID-19 recession extended into summer 2020, more than 3 million lost employer-sponsored health insurance coverage and 2 million became uninsured: evidence from the Household Pulse Survey, April 23, 2020-July 21, 2020. Accessed October 13, 2020. https://www.rwjf.org/en/library/research/2020/09/as-covid-19-recession-extended-into-summer-2020-more-than-3-million-lost-employer-sponsored-health-insurance.html
5.
Yehia  BR , Winegar  A , Fogel  R ,  et al.  Association of race with mortality among patients hospitalized with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) at 92 US hospitals.   JAMA Netw Open. 2020;3(8):e2018039. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2020.18039PubMedGoogle Scholar
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Alsan  M , Stantcheva  S , Yang  D , Cutler  D .  Disparities in coronavirus 2019 reported incidence, knowledge, and behavior among US adults.   JAMA Netw Open. 2020;3(6):e2012403. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2020.12403 PubMedGoogle Scholar
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Kurtzleben  D . Job losses higher among people of color during coronavirus pandemic. Published April 22, 2020. Accessed October 13, 2020. https://www.npr.org/2020/04/22/840276956/minorities-often-work-these-jobs-they-were-among-first-to-go-in-coronavirus-layo
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US Bureau of Labor Statistics. Unemployment rate rises to record high 14.7 percent in April 2020. Published May 13, 2020. Accessed October 13, 2020. https://www.bls.gov/opub/ted/2020/unemployment-rate-rises-to-record-high-14-point-7-percent-in-april-2020.htm
9.
Gonzalez  D , Karpman  M , Kenney  G , Zuckerman  S . Hispanic adults in families with noncitizens disproportionately feel the economic fallout from COVID-19. Published May 1, 2020. Accessed October 13, 2020. https://www.rwjf.org/en/library/research/2020/05/hispanic-adults-in-families-with-noncitizens-disproportionately-feel-the-economic-fallout-from-covid-19.html
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