Firearm violence occurred more frequently in US cities in 2020 compared with previous years.1 Two major events of 2020 may explain this increase: enactment of containment policies to reduce the spread of COVID-19 and a national reckoning with systemic racism, including widespread protests sparked by the police killing of George Floyd.1 This study evaluated independent associations between COVID-19 containment policies and the killing of George Floyd on firearm violence in 1 US city, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.
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CME Disclosure Statement: Unless noted, all individuals in control of content reported no relevant financial relationships. If applicable, all relevant financial relationships have been mitigated.
Accepted for Publication: February 2, 2021.
Published Online: February 10, 2021. doi:10.1001/jama.2021.1534
Corresponding Author: Jessica H. Beard, MD, MPH, 3401 N Broad St, Fourth Floor, Zone C, Philadelphia, PA 19140 (email@example.com).
Author Contributions: Drs Beard and Morrison had full access to all of the data in the study and take responsibility for the integrity of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis.
Concept and design: Beard, Jacoby, Dong, Goldberg, Morrison.
Acquisition, analysis, or interpretation of data: Beard, Jacoby, Maher, Dong, Kaufman, Morrison.
Drafting of the manuscript: Beard, Morrison.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: Beard, Jacoby, Maher, Dong, Kaufman, Goldberg.
Statistical analysis: Beard, Morrison.
Administrative, technical, or material support: Beard, Maher.
Other (theoretical frameworks): Dong.
Conflict of Interest Disclosures: Dr Jacoby reported receipt of grants from the Rita and Alex Hillman Foundation and from University of Pennsylvania University Research Foundation outside the submitted work. No other disclosures were reported.
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