Accepted for Publication: December 18, 2020.
Published Online: March 3, 2021. doi:10.1001/jamapsychiatry.2020.4768
Corresponding Author: Michael G. McDonell, PhD, Department of Medical Education and Clinical Sciences, Elson S. Floyd College of Medicine, Washington State University, PO Box 1495, Spokane, WA 99210-1495 (email@example.com).
Author Contributions: Dr McDonell had full access to all the data in the study and takes responsibility for the integrity of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis.
Concept and design: McDonell, Avey, Dillard, Ries, Roll, Buchwald.
Acquisition, analysis, or interpretation of data: McDonell, Hirchak, Herron, Lyons, Alcover, Shaw, Kordas, Dirks, Jansen, Avey, Lillie, Donovan, McPherson, Buchwald.
Drafting of the manuscript: McDonell, Hirchak, Herron, Lyons, Alcover, Kordas, Dirks, Jansen, Donovan, McPherson, Buchwald.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: McDonell, Herron, Lyons, Shaw, Jansen, Avey, Lillie, Donovan, McPherson, Dillard, Ries, Roll, Buchwald.
Statistical analysis: McDonell, Lyons, Alcover, Kordas, Donovan, McPherson, Buchwald.
Obtained funding: McDonell, Roll.
Administrative, technical, or material support: McDonell, Hirchak, Herron, Lyons, Shaw, Dirks, Jansen, Avey, Lillie, McPherson, Roll.
Supervision: McDonell, Shaw, McPherson, Dillard, Buchwald.
Other - site PI: Shaw.
Conflict of Interest Disclosures: Dr McDonell reported receiving grants from the National Institutes of Health during the conduct of the study and receiving funding from a tribally owned for-profit medical clinic to evaluate clinical outcomes outside the submitted work. Dr Hirchak reported receiving grants from the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism during the conduct of the study. Ms Herron reported receiving grants from the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism during the conduct of the study. Dr Avey reported receiving grants from the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism during the conduct of the study. Dr McPherson reported receiving grants from the National Institutes of Health during the conduct of the study and serving as a consultant for Consistent Care and receiving funding from the Bristol Myers Squibb Foundation, Managed Health Connections, the Orthopedic Specialty Institute (Coeur d’Alene, Idaho), Ringful Health, and the US Department of Justice outside the submitted work. Dr Ries reported receiving grants from the National Institutes of Health during the conduct of the study and serving as a consultant for 2 tribally operated addiction treatment programs outside the submitted work. No other disclosures were reported.
Funding/Support: Funding for this study was provided by grant R01 AA022070 from the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism and the Office of Behavioral and Social Science Research at the National Institutes of Health (Drs McDonell and Buchwald). The dissemination of study results was supported by grant P60 AA024334 from the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (Dr Buchwald), grant T32 AA018108 from the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (Dr McCrady), grant K01 AA028831-01 from the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (Dr Hirchak), grant S06 GM127911 from the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (Dr Ferucci), grant S06 GM123545 from the National Institute of General Medical Sciences Native American Research Centers for Health (Dr Hiratsuka), and grant S06 GM127911 from the National Institute of General Medical Sciences Native American Research Centers for Health (Dr Ferucci).
Role of the Funder/Sponsor: The funding organizations had no role in the design and conduct of the study; collection, management, analysis, and interpretation of the data; preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript; and decision to submit the manuscript for publication.
Group Information: The HONOR Study Team members are listed in Supplement 2.
Disclaimer: The views expressed in this article do not necessarily represent the views of any participating tribe or partnering organization.
Data Sharing Statement: See Supplement 3.
Additional Contributions: We thank the communities who chose to partner with us on this study as well as all the participants who made this study possible. We also thank the members of our data safety and monitoring board. We acknowledge in a special way our relatives who died during the study, including our data safety monitoring board chair, Nancy Petry, PhD, without whom this study would not have been possible.
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