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Trends in Health Care Worker Intentions to Receive a COVID-19 Vaccine and Reasons for Hesitancy

Educational Objective
To identify the key insights or developments described in this article
1 Credit CME

Although health care workers (HCWs) can serve as ambassadors of COVID-19 vaccine acceptance, surveys have found low acceptance rates among HCWs (eg, 33.5%).1 However, those surveys were conducted before the issuance of vaccine emergency use authorizations (EUAs) by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA). We surveyed all employees of a health care system on the eve of vaccine distribution to encourage them to receive a COVID-19 vaccine, assess their intentions to do so, and understand reasons for hesitancy.

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CME Disclosure Statement: Unless noted, all individuals in control of content reported no relevant financial relationships. If applicable, all relevant financial relationships have been mitigated.

Article Information

Accepted for Publication: February 18, 2021.

Published: March 23, 2021. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2021.5344

Open Access: This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the CC-BY License. © 2021 Meyer MN et al. JAMA Network Open.

Corresponding Author: Michelle N. Meyer, PhD, JD, Center for Translational Bioethics and Health Care Policy, Geisinger Health System, 100 N Academy Ave, Danville, PA 17822 (michellenmeyer@gmail.com).

Author Contributions: Dr Meyer had full access to all of the data in the study and takes responsibility for the integrity of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis. Ms Gjorgjieva and Mr Rosica contributed equally to this work.

Concept and design: Meyer, Rosica.

Acquisition, analysis, or interpretation of data: All authors.

Drafting of the manuscript: All authors.

Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: Meyer, Rosica.

Statistical analysis: Gjorgjieva.

Administrative, technical, or material support: Rosica.

Supervision: Meyer.

Conflict of Interest Disclosures: None reported.

Additional Contributions: We thank the Geisinger employees who responded to the survey. Stephanie Gryboski, MHA, Allison Hess, MBA, and Stanley Martin, MD (all of Geisinger), provided input into the survey instrument. Geisinger Marketing administered and promoted the survey. Christopher Chabris, PhD (Geisinger), and participants in “Behavioral Science and COVID-19 Vaccine Acceptance,” a virtual meeting convened by the University of Pennsylvania on December 16, 2020, provided helpful comments. None of these individuals was compensated for their contributions.

Additional Information: Data, materials, and reproducible code are available at https://osf.io/5c4ew/.

References
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Gadoth  A , Halbrook  M , Martin-Blais  R ,  et al.  Assessment of COVID-19 vaccine acceptance among healthcare workers in Los Angeles.   medRxiv. Published online November 19, 2020. doi:10.1101/2020.11.18.20234468Google Scholar
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Aggarwal  P , Jun  SY , Huh  JH .  Scarcity messages.   J Advert. 2011;40(3):19-30. doi:10.2753/JOA0091-3367400302Google ScholarCrossref
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O’Keefe  DJ , Jensen  JD .  The relative persuasiveness of gain-framed and loss-framed messages for encouraging disease prevention behaviors: a meta-analytic review.   J Health Commun. 2007;12(7):623-644. doi:10.1080/10810730701615198PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
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Venema  TAG , Kroese  FM , Benjamins  JS , de Ridder  DTD .  When in doubt, follow the crowd? responsiveness to social proof nudges in the absence of clear preferences.   Front Psychol. 2020;11:1385. doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2020.01385PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
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Kreps  S , Prasad  S , Brownstein  JS ,  et al.  Factors associated with US adults’ likelihood of accepting COVID-19 vaccination.   JAMA Netw Open. 2020;3(10):e2025594. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2020.25594PubMedGoogle Scholar
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Opel  DJ , Salmon  DA , Marcuse  EK .  Building trust to achieve confidence in COVID-19 vaccines.   JAMA Netw Open. 2020;3(10):e2025672. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2020.25672PubMedGoogle Scholar
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