Accepted for Publication: January 29, 2021.
Published: March 23, 2021. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2021.2618
Open Access: This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the CC-BY License. © 2021 Weiner JP et al. JAMA Network Open.
Corresponding Author: Jonathan P. Weiner, DrPH, Center for Population Health Information Technology, Department of Health Policy and Management, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, 624 N Broadway, Rm 605, Baltimore, Maryland 21205 (firstname.lastname@example.org).
Author Contributions: Dr Bandeian and Mr Lans had full access to all of the data in the study and take responsibility for the integrity of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis.
Concept and design: Weiner, Bandeian, Hatef, Liu.
Acquisition, analysis, or interpretation of data: Weiner, Bandeian, Lans, Lemke.
Drafting of the manuscript: Weiner, Hatef, Lans, Liu.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: Weiner, Bandeian, Hatef, Liu, Lemke.
Statistical analysis: Weiner, Bandeian, Lans, Lemke.
Administrative, technical, or material support: Weiner, Hatef, Liu.
Conflict of Interest Disclosures: None reported.
Funding/Support: This study was internally funded through the Center for Population Health Information Technology at Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health and Blue Health Intelligence.
Role of the Funder/Sponsor: The funders had no role in the design and conduct of the study; collection, management, analysis, and interpretation of the data; preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript; and decision to submit the manuscript for publication.
Disclaimer: The content of this article is the responsibility of the authors and does not necessarily represent the positions of the Johns Hopkins University or Blue Health Intelligence or the Blue Cross and Blue Shield Association.
Additional Contributions: We are grateful to Blue Health Intelligence and the health plans who contributed to this database for making these data available. Lauren Tansky, BA (Johns Hopkins Center for Population Health Information Technology), provided technical support in the preparation of manuscript tables and was not compensated beyond her normal salary.
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