Corresponding Author: Domenico L. Grieco, MD, Department of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care Medicine, Catholic University of the Sacred Heart, Fondazione Policlinico Universitario A. Gemelli IRCCS, Lgo F Vito, 00168, Rome, Italy (email@example.com).
Accepted for Publication: March 12, 2021.
Published Online: March 25, 2021. doi:10.1001/jama.2021.4682
Author Contributions: Drs Grieco and Menga had full access to all the data in the study and take responsibility for the integrity of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis.
Concept and design: Grieco, Pintaudi, Dell'Anna, Bocci, De Pascale, Volta, Conti, Maggiore, Antonelli.
Acquisition, analysis, or interpretation of data: Grieco, Menga, Cesarano, Rosà, Spadaro, Bitondo, Montomoli, Falò, Tonetti, Cutuli, Pintaudi, Tanzarella, Piervincenzi, Bongiovanni, Dell’Anna, Delle Cese, Berardi, Carelli, Montini, Bello, Natalini, De Pascale, Velardo, Volta, Ranieri, Antonelli.
Drafting of the manuscript: Grieco, Menga, Cesarano, Pintaudi, Bongiovanni, Dell’Anna, Carelli, Bocci, Natalini, De Pascale, Antonelli.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: Grieco, Menga, Rosà, Spadaro, Bitondo, Montomoli, Falò, Tonetti, Cutuli, Pintaudi, Tanzarella, Piervincenzi, Bongiovanni, Delle Cese, Berardi, Montini, Bello, De Pascale, Velardo, Volta, Ranieri, Conti, Maggiore, Antonelli.
Statistical analysis: Grieco, Montini, De Pascale, Velardo.
Obtained funding: Grieco, Antonelli.
Administrative, technical, or material support: Grieco, Cesarano, Rosà, Spadaro, Bitondo, Pintaudi, Tanzarella, Piervincenzi, Bongiovanni, Dell’Anna, Bocci, Natalini, De Pascale, Antonelli.
Supervision: Grieco, Spadaro, Pintaudi, Piervincenzi, Bongiovanni, Dell’Anna, Bocci, Bello, De Pascale, Volta, Ranieri, Conti, Maggiore, Antonelli.
Conflict of Interest Disclosures: Dr Grieco reported receiving grants from the Italian Society of Anesthesia, Analgesia, and Intensive Care Medicine during the conduct of the study and grants from the European Society of Intensive Care Medicine and GE Healthcare and travel expenses from Maquet, Getinge, and Air Liquide outside the submitted work. Dr Montomoli reported receiving personal fees from Active Medica BV outside the submitted work. Dr Conti reported receiving payments for lectures from Chiesi Pharmaceuticals SpA. Dr Maggiore reported serving as the principal investigator of the RINO trial (ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02107183), which was supported by Fisher and Paykel Healthcare through an institutional grant, and receiving personal fees from Draeger Medical and GE Healthcare outside the submitted work. Dr Antonelli reported receiving personal fees from Maquet, Chiesi, and Air Liquide and grants from GE Healthcare outside the submitted work. No other disclosures were reported.
Funding/Support: The study was funded by a research grant (2017 Merck Sharp & Dohme SRL award) by the Italian Society of Anesthesia, Analgesia, and Intensive Care Medicine.
Role of the Funder/Sponsor: The funder had no role in the design and conduct of the study; collection, management, analysis, and interpretation of the data; preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript; and decision to submit the manuscript for publication.
Group Information: The COVID-ICU Gemelli Study Group members are listed in Supplement 4.
Data Sharing Statement: See Supplement 5.
Additional Contributions: We are grateful to all intensive care unit physicians, residents, nurses, and personnel from the participating centers, whose sacrifice, efforts, devotion to patients, and passion have made possible this timely report. We are grateful to Jean-Pierre Frat, MD, PhD (Poitiers, France), Oriol Roca, MD, PhD (Barcelona, Spain), and Jordi Mancebo, MD, PhD (Barcelona, Spain), for their contribution as members of the adjudication committee for endotracheal intubation. We are grateful to Cristina Cacciagrano, Emiliano Tizi, and Alberto Noto, MD, for their contribution to study organization. We are grateful to Gabriele Esposito, PD, for Figure 1 drafting. Drs Frat, Roca, and Velardo received a personal fee for their contribution to the study; all others listed did not receive compensation.
Additional Information: The study was endorsed by the Insufficienza Respiratoria Acuta e Assistenza Respiratoria study group of the Italian Society of Anesthesia, Analgesia, and Intensive Care Medicine.
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