Race/Ethnicity and Likeliness of COVID-19 Vaccine Uptake Among Health Workers and General Population | Health Disparities | JN Learning | AMA Ed Hub [Skip to Content]
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Association of Race/Ethnicity With Likeliness of COVID-19 Vaccine Uptake Among Health Workers and the General Population in the San Francisco Bay Area

Educational Objective
To identify the key insights or developments described in this article
1 Credit CME

Surveys have demonstrated racial differences in the public’s willingness to receive a COVID-19 vaccine1,2 but have not directly compared vaccine intentions among health workers and the general public.3 We investigated COVID-19 vaccine intentions among racially and ethnically diverse samples of health workers and the general population.

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Article Information

Accepted for Publication: March 6, 2021.

Published Online: March 30, 2021. doi:10.1001/jamainternmed.2021.1445

Open Access: This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the CC-BY License. © 2021 Grumbach K et al. JAMA Internal Medicine.

Corresponding Author: Kevin Grumbach, MD, San Francisco General Hospital, Department of Family and Community Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, 1001 Potrero Ave, Ward 83, Room 310, San Francisco, CA 94110 (kevin.grumbach@ucsf.edu).

Author Contributions: Dr Grumbach had full access to all of the data in the study and takes responsibility for the integrity of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis.

Concept and design: Grumbach, Judson, Jain, Lindan, Doernberg, Holubar.

Acquisition, analysis, or interpretation of data: Grumbach, Desai, Jain, Lindan, Doernberg, Holubar.

Drafting of the manuscript: Grumbach, Judson, Holubar.

Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: All authors.

Statistical analysis: Desai, Holubar.

Administrative, technical, or material support: Grumbach, Judson, Jain, Lindan.

Supervision: Grumbach, Judson, Jain, Lindan, Doernberg.

Conflict of Interest Disclosures: Dr Jain reported receiving grants from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention/President’s Emergency Plan For AIDS Relief not related to this work during the conduct of the study. Dr Lindan reported receiving grants from the Chan Zuckerberg Initiative during the conduct of the study. Dr Doernberg reported receiving grants from the Chan Zuckerberg Initiative during the conduct of the study and receiving personal fees from Genentech and Basilea Pharmaceutica for consulting outside the submitted work. No other disclosures were reported.

Funding/Support: This work was supported by the Chan Zuckerberg Initiative. Dr Grumbach’s effort was partly supported by a grant from the National Institutes of Health Community Engagement Alliance Against COVID-19 Disparities program (21-312-0217571-66106L).

Role of the Funder/Sponsor: The funders had no role in the design and conduct of the study; collection, management, analysis, and interpretation of the data; preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript; and decision to submit the manuscript for publication.

Disclaimer: The contents of the article are solely the responsibility of the authors and do not necessarily represent the official views of the National Institutes of Health.

Additional Contributions: Yvonne Maldonado, MD (Division of Pediatric Infectious Diseases, Stanford University School of Medicine), and George W. Rutherford, MD (Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, University of California, San Francisco), serve as principal investigators of the California Pandemic Consortium and obtained study funding, designed the cohort studies, and provided input into survey study design. Yingjie Weng, MS, Di Lu, MS, and Derek Boothroyd, PhD, of the Quantitative Sciences Unit, Department of Medicine, Stanford University, provided consultation on analytic methods and performed data analysis. Jenna Bollyky, MD (Division of Infectious Diseases and Geographic Medicine, Stanford University School of Medicine), and Hannah Sample, BS (Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, University of California, San Francisco), managed the study cohorts. Beatrice Huang, BA (Department of Family and Community Medicine, University of California, San Francisco), contributed to survey instrument development and administration. The authors thank all additional project staff for their dedicated work on this study and community partners who collaborated on recruitment of participants for the general population cohort. These individuals did not receive compensation for their contributions beyond their employment salaries.

References
1.
Khubchandani  J , Sharma  S , Price  JH , Wiblishauser  MJ , Sharma  M , Webb  FJ .  COVID-19 vaccination hesitancy in the United States: a rapid national assessment.   J Community Health. 2021;46(2):270-277. doi:10.1007/s10900-020-00958-x PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
2.
Hamel  L , Kirzinger  A , Muñana  C , Brodie  M . KFF COVID-19 Vaccine Monitor: December 2020. Accessed March 12, 2021. https://www.kff.org/coronavirus-covid-19/report/kff-covid-19-vaccine-monitor-december-2020/
3.
Shaw  J , Stewart  T , Anderson  KB ,  et al.  Assessment of US health care personnel (HCP) attitudes towards COVID-19 vaccination in a large university health care system.   Clin Infect Dis. Published online January 25, 2021. doi:10.1093/cid/ciab054PubMedGoogle Scholar
4.
Rossen  LM , Branum  AM , Ahmad  FB , Sutton  P , Anderson  RN .  Excess deaths associated with COVID-19, by age and race and ethnicity—United States, January 26–October 3, 2020.   MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2020;69(42):1522-1527. doi:10.15585/mmwr.mm6942e2 PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
5.
Corbie-Smith  G .  Vaccine hesitancy is a scapegoat for structural racism.   JAMA Health Forum. Published online March 25, 2021. doi:10.1001/jamahealthforum.2021.0434Google Scholar
6.
Cooper  LA , Crews  DC .  COVID-19, racism, and the pursuit of health care and research worthy of trust.   J Clin Invest. 2020;130(10):5033-5035. doi:10.1172/JCI141562 PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
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