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Characteristics and Disease Severity of US Children and Adolescents Diagnosed With COVID-19

Educational Objective
To identify the key insights or developments described in this article
1 Credit CME

In 2020, more than 2 000 000 pediatric COVID-19 cases were reported in the United States.1 Although approximately half of pediatric patients with COVID-19 experience mild disease, some children require admission to intensive care units or use of invasive mechanical ventilation.2 We conducted a cohort study to estimate adjusted associations between demographic and clinical characteristics and severe COVID-19 among hospitalized pediatric patients.

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Article Information

Accepted for Publication: February 18, 2021.

Published: April 9, 2021. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2021.5298

Open Access: This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the CC-BY License. © 2021 Preston LE et al. JAMA Network Open.

Corresponding Author: Alyson B. Goodman, MD, COVID-19 Response Team, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 4770 Buford Hwy, MS S107-5, Atlanta, GA 30341 (agoodman@cdc.gov).

Author Contributions: Dr Preston had full access to all of the data in the study and takes responsibility for the integrity of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis.

Concept and design: Preston, Chevinsky, Kompaniyets, Kimball, Goodman.

Acquisition, analysis, or interpretation of data: All authors.

Drafting of the manuscript: Preston, Chevinsky, Kompaniyets, Kimball, Goodman.

Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: All authors.

Statistical analysis: Preston, Chevinsky.

Obtained funding: Boehmer.

Administrative, technical, or material support: Preston, Chevinsky, Kompaniyets, Lavery.

Supervision: Kompaniyets, Boehmer, Goodman.

Conflict of Interest Disclosures: None reported.

Disclaimer: The findings and conclusions in this report are those of the authors and do not necessarily represent the official position of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). All information and materials in this article are the original work of the authors.

Additional Contributions: We thank the following individuals from the CDC COVID-19 Response Team: Sachin Agnihotri, MS, David Nitschke, BS, Indira Srinivasan, MS, and Kimberly Riggle, BBA, for facilitating access to the data set; and Zhaohui Cui, PhD, Melissa L. Danielson, MSPH, Gonza Namulanda, DrPH, Audrey F. Pennington, PhD, Lyna Z. Schieber, MD, Brook Belay, MD, James Baggs, PhD, Adi V. Gundlapalli, MD, and William R. Mac Kenzie, MD (also with the Commissioned Corps US Public Health Service), for assistance with concept and manuscript development. We also thank John House, MS (Premier Inc), for providing data consultation for the Premier Healthcare Database Special COVID-19 Release. None of these individuals received any compensation beyond their usual salary.

References
1.
American Academy of Pediatrics and the Children’s Hospital Association. Children and COVID-19: state data report: a joint report from the American Academy of Pediatrics and the Children’s Hospital Association. Version 12/24/20. Accessed December 31, 2020. https://downloads.aap.org/AAP/PDF/AAP%20and%20CHA%20-%20Children%20and%20COVID-19%20State%20Data%20Report%2012.24.20%20FINAL.pdf
2.
Kim  L , Whitaker  M , O’Halloran  A ,  et al; COVID-NET Surveillance Team.  Hospitalization rates and characteristics of children aged <18 years hospitalized with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19—COVID-NET, 14 states, March 1-July 25, 2020.   MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2020;69(32):1081-1088. doi:10.15585/mmwr.mm6932e3 PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
3.
Premier Applied Science. Premier healthcare database (COVID-19): data that informs and performs. April 2020. Accessed December 30, 2020. http://offers.premierinc.com/rs/381-NBB-525/images/PHD_COVID-19_White_Paper.pdf
4.
Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality: Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project, Chronic Condition Indicators for ICD-10-CM. Accessed August 26, 2020. https://www.hcup-us.ahrq.gov/toolssoftware/chronic_icd10/chronic_icd10.jsp
5.
Stokes  EK , Zambrano  LD , Anderson  KN ,  et al.  Coronavirus disease 2019 case surveillance—United States, January 22-May 30, 2020.   MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2020;69(24):759-765. doi:10.15585/mmwr.mm6924e2 PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
6.
Martin  S , Wagner  J , Lupulescu-Mann  N ,  et al.  Comparison of EHR-based diagnosis documentation locations to a gold standard for risk stratification in patients with multiple chronic conditions.   Appl Clin Inform. 2017;8(3):794-809. doi:10.4338/ACI-2016-12-RA-0210 PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
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