Accepted for Publication: February 23, 2021.
Published Online: April 15, 2021. doi:10.1001/jamaoto.2021.0454
Corresponding Authors: Yi Ji, MD, PhD, Division of Oncology, Department of Pediatric Surgery (email@example.com), and Siyuan Chen, MD, PhD, Pediatric Intensive Care Unit, Department of Critical Care Medicine (firstname.lastname@example.org), West China Hospital of Sichuan University, 37# Guo-Xue-Xiang, Chengdu, 610041, China.
Author Contributions: Drs Ji and Chen had full access to all the data in the study and take responsibility for the integrity of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis.
Concept and design: Ji, Chen, Zhou, Jiang, Y. Zhang.
Acquisition, analysis, or interpretation of data: Ji, Yang, X. Zhang, Li, Xiang, T. Qiu, Dai, Lu, L. Qiu, Kong.
Drafting of the manuscript: Ji, Chen, Yang, X. Zhang, Zhou, T. Qiu, Dai, Jiang, Lu.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: Ji, Chen, Li, Xiang, L. Qiu, Kong, Y. Zhang.
Statistical analysis: Ji, Yang, X. Zhang, Zhou, T. Qiu, Dai, Jiang, Y. Zhang.
Obtained funding: Ji, Chen.
Administrative, technical, or material support: Ji, Li, Xiang, Lu, L. Qiu, Kong.
Conflict of Interest Disclosures: None reported.
Funding/Support: This study was supported by grants 81400862 and 81401606 from the National Natural Science Foundation of China, grant 2019YFS0322 from the Key Project in the Science & Technology Program of Sichuan Province, grant 2015SU04A15 from the Science Foundation for The Excellent Youth Scholars of Sichuan University, and grants 2019HXFH056 and 2020XHFH048 from the 1·3·5 project for disciplines of excellence for the Clinical Research Incubation Project of West China Hospital of Sichuan University.
Role of the Funder/Sponsor: The funding organizations had no role in the design and conduct of the study; collection, management, analysis, and interpretation of the data; preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript; and decision to submit the manuscript for publication.
Additional Contributions: We acknowledge the support of all other involved investigators and participating practitioners, nurses, and residents for their valued contributions. We thank all of the patients and their parents and/or guardians who participated in this study. Additionally, we thank the parents of the patients who appear in images and are described in Supplement 2 for permission to publish this information. None of these individuals were compensated for their contributions.
Data Sharing Statement: See Supplement 3.
DH , Greene
AK , Mancini
AJ , Nopper
AJ ; Section on Dermatology, Section on Otolaryngology–Head and Neck Surgery, and Section of Plastic Surgery. Diagnosis and management of infantile hemangioma. Pediatrics
. 2015;136(4):e1060-e1104. doi:10.1542/peds.2015-2485PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
SR , Darrow
DH , Grimmer
JF , Manning
SC , Richter
GT , Perkins
JA . Propranolol use for infantile hemangiomas: American Society of Pediatric Otolaryngology Vascular Anomalies Task Force practice patterns. JAMA Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg
. 2013;139(2):153-156. doi:10.1001/jamaoto.2013.1218PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
C , Boccara
O , Degrugillier-Chopinet
et al. Safety of oral propranolol for the treatment of infantile hemangioma: a systematic review. Pediatrics
. 2016;138(4):e20160353. doi:10.1542/peds.2016-0353PubMedGoogle Scholar
A , Thanopoulou
I , Dakoutrou
M , Georgiadou
E , Chrousos
GP , Kakourou
T . Atenolol treatment for severe infantile hemangiomas: a single-centre prospective study. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol
. 2018;32(3):e117-e119. doi:10.1111/jdv.14590PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
CB , Tamburro
JE , Vidimos
AT , Wang
L , Golden
AB . Atenolol versus propranolol for treatment of infantile hemangiomas during the proliferative phase: a retrospective noninferiority study. Pediatr Dermatol
. 2017;34(4):413-421. doi:10.1111/pde.13177PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
A , Navarrete-Dechent
CP , Heusser
F , Retamal
J , Zegpi-Trueba
MS . Atenolol versus propranolol for the treatment of infantile hemangiomas: a randomized controlled study. J Am Acad Dermatol
. 2014;70(6):1045-1049. doi:10.1016/j.jaad.2014.01.905PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
SR , van Oosterhout
M , de Laat
PC , van Rosmalen
J , Madern
GC , Oranje
AP . Scoring the therapeutic effects of oral propranolol for infantile hemangioma: a prospective study comparing the Hemangioma Activity Score (HAS) with the Hemangioma Severity Scale (HSS). J Am Acad Dermatol
. 2015;73(2):258-263. doi:10.1016/j.jaad.2015.05.012PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
DP , Frieden
IJ , Mancini
et al; Subcommittee on the Management of Infantile Hemangiomas. Clinical practice guideline for the management of infantile hemangiomas. Pediatrics
. 2019;143(1):e20183475. doi:10.1542/peds.2018-3475PubMedGoogle Scholar
C , Abot
A , Delarue
A , Knauf
C . Central effects of beta-blockers may be due to nitric oxide and hydrogen peroxide release independently of their ability to cross the blood-brain barrier. Front Neurosci
. 2019;13:33. doi:10.3389/fnins.2019.00033PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref