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A taxonomic revolution is occurring in medicine. Spurred by the halcyon vision of targeted “precision” therapy and enabled by access to massive electronic health data sets, high-throughput multichannel, molecular diagnostic assays, and advances in the understanding of disease biology, researchers have generated a plethora of new disease subclassifications (eTable and eFigure in the Supplement). Variably termed “phenotypes,” “endotypes,” or “subtypes,” these patient groups can share symptoms, biology, or prognosis and are proposed as the basis for precision care.
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Corresponding Author: Christopher W. Seymour, MD, MSc, Clinical Research, Investigation, and Systems Modeling of Acute illness (CRISMA) Center, Departments of Critical Care Medicine and Emergency Medicine, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, 3550 Terrace St, Scaife Hall, #639, Pittsburgh, PA 15261 (firstname.lastname@example.org).
Published Online: May 7, 2021. doi:10.1001/jama.2021.5248
Conflict of Interest Disclosures: Dr Angus reports receiving grants from University of Pittsburgh REMAP-CAP and grants from Amgen and Eisai. Dr Seymour reports receiving grants from NIH, personal fees from Beckman Coulter, nonfinancial support from Amgen, and nonfinancial support from Eisai. No other disclosures were reported.
Funding/Support: This work was funded in part by the NIH (Dr Seymour, R35GM119519).
Role of the Funder/Sponsor: The NIH had no role in the preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript; and decision to submit the manuscript for publication.
Additional Contributions: We acknowledge the thoughtful review and input from Manu Shankar-Hari, MD, MSc, PhD (King’s College London and St Thomas’ Hospital) and Kenneth Baillie, MBChB (University of Edinburgh).
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