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Long-term Symptoms After SARS-CoV-2 Infection in Children and Adolescents

Educational Objective
To identify the key insights or developments described in this article
1 Credit CME

Children can experience SARS-CoV-2 postviral syndromes, but it is unclear to what extent these individuals are affected by long COVID. Evidence is predominantly limited to select populations without control groups,14 which does not allow estimating the overall prevalence and burden in a general pediatric population. We compared symptoms compatible with long COVID in children and adolescents (hereafter “children”) reported within 6 months after SARS-CoV-2 serologic testing.

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Article Information

Corresponding Author: Susi Kriemler, MD, Epidemiology, Biostatistics and Prevention Institute (EBPI), University of Zurich, Hirschengraben 84, 8001 Zürich, Switzerland (susi.kriemlerwiget@uzh.ch).

Accepted for Publication: July 1, 2021.

Published Online: July 15, 2021. doi:10.1001/jama.2021.11880

Author Contributions: Dr Ulyte had full access to all of the data in the study and takes responsibility for the integrity of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis. Drs Radtke and Ulyte are co–first authors.

Concept and design: All authors.

Acquisition, analysis, or interpretation of data: All authors.

Drafting of the manuscript: Radtke, Ulyte, Kriemler.

Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: All authors.

Statistical analysis: Ulyte.

Obtained funding: Puhan, Kriemler.

Administrative, technical, or material support: All authors.

Supervision: Puhan, Kriemler.

Conflict of Interest Disclosures: None reported.

Funding/Support: This study is part of the Corona Immunitas research network, coordinated by the Swiss School of Public Health (SSPH+), and funded by fundraising of SSPH+ that includes funds of the Swiss Federal Office of Public Health and private funders (ethical guidelines for funding stated by SSPH+ were respected), by funds of the cantons of Switzerland (Vaud, Zurich, and Basel), and by institutional funds of the universities. Additional funding, specific to this study, was available from the University of Zurich Foundation.

Role of the Funder/Sponsor: The funders had no role in the design and conduct of the study; collection, management, analysis, and interpretation of the data; preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript; and decision to submit the manuscript for publication.

References
1.
Buonsenso  D , Munblit  D , De Rose  C ,  et al.  Preliminary evidence on long COVID in children.   Acta Paediatr. 2021;110(7):2208-2211. doi:10.1111/apa.15870PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
2.
Say  D , Crawford  N , McNab  S , Wurzel  D , Steer  A , Tosif  S .  Post-acute COVID-19 outcomes in children with mild and asymptomatic disease.   Lancet Child Adolesc Health. 2021;5(6):e22-e23. doi:10.1016/S2352-4642(21)00124-3PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
3.
Ludvigsson  JF .  Case report and systematic review suggest that children may experience similar long-term effects to adults after clinical COVID-19.   Acta Paediatr. 2021;110(3):914-921. doi:10.1111/apa.15673PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
4.
Brackel  CLH , Lap  CR , Buddingh  EP ,  et al  Pediatric long-COVID: an overlooked phenomenon?   Pediatr Pulmonol. Published online June 8, 2021. doi:10.1002/ppul.25521Google Scholar
5.
Ulyte  A , Radtke  T , Abela  IA ,  et al.  Clustering and longitudinal change in SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence in school children in the canton of Zurich, Switzerland: prospective cohort study of 55 schools.   BMJ. 2021;372(n616):n616. doi:10.1136/bmj.n616PubMedGoogle Scholar
6.
Ulyte  A , Radtke  T , Abela  IA ,  et al.  Seroprevalence and immunity of SARS-CoV-2 infection in children and adolescents in schools in Switzerland: design for a longitudinal, school-based prospective cohort study.   Int J Public Health. 2020;65(9):1549-1557. doi:10.1007/s00038-020-01495-zPubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
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