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What is the global prevalence of clinically elevated child and adolescent anxiety and depression symptoms during COVID-19?
In this meta-analysis of 29 studies including 80 879 youth globally, the pooled prevalence estimates of clinically elevated child and adolescent depression and anxiety were 25.2% and 20.5%, respectively. The prevalence of depression and anxiety symptoms during COVID-19 have doubled, compared with prepandemic estimates, and moderator analyses revealed that prevalence rates were higher when collected later in the pandemic, in older adolescents, and in girls.
The global estimates of child and adolescent mental illness observed in the first year of the COVID-19 pandemic in this study indicate that the prevalence has significantly increased, remains high, and therefore warrants attention for mental health recovery planning.
Emerging research suggests that the global prevalence of child and adolescent mental illness has increased considerably during COVID-19. However, substantial variability in prevalence rates have been reported across the literature.
To ascertain more precise estimates of the global prevalence of child and adolescent clinically elevated depression and anxiety symptoms during COVID-19; to compare these rates with prepandemic estimates; and to examine whether demographic (eg, age, sex), geographical (ie, global region), or methodological (eg, pandemic data collection time point, informant of mental illness, study quality) factors explained variation in prevalence rates across studies.
Four databases were searched (PsycInfo, Embase, MEDLINE, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials) from January 1, 2020, to February 16, 2021, and unpublished studies were searched in PsycArXiv on March 8, 2021, for studies reporting on child/adolescent depression and anxiety symptoms. The search strategy combined search terms from 3 themes: (1) mental illness (including depression and anxiety), (2) COVID-19, and (3) children and adolescents (age ≤18 years). For PsycArXiv, the key terms COVID-19, mental health, and child/adolescent were used.
Studies were included if they were published in English, had quantitative data, and reported prevalence of clinically elevated depression or anxiety in youth (age ≤18 years).
Data Extraction and Synthesis
A total of 3094 nonduplicate titles/abstracts were retrieved, and 136 full-text articles were reviewed. Data were analyzed from March 8 to 22, 2021.
Main Outcomes and Measures
Prevalence rates of clinically elevated depression and anxiety symptoms in youth.
Random-effect meta-analyses were conducted. Twenty-nine studies including 80 879 participants met full inclusion criteria. Pooled prevalence estimates of clinically elevated depression and anxiety symptoms were 25.2% (95% CI, 21.2%-29.7%) and 20.5% (95% CI, 17.2%-24.4%), respectively. Moderator analyses revealed that the prevalence of clinically elevated depression and anxiety symptoms were higher in studies collected later in the pandemic and in girls. Depression symptoms were higher in older children.
Conclusions and Relevance
Pooled estimates obtained in the first year of the COVID-19 pandemic suggest that 1 in 4 youth globally are experiencing clinically elevated depression symptoms, while 1 in 5 youth are experiencing clinically elevated anxiety symptoms. These pooled estimates, which increased over time, are double of prepandemic estimates. An influx of mental health care utilization is expected, and allocation of resources to address child and adolescent mental health concerns are essential.
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Corresponding Author: Sheri Madigan, PhD, RPsych, Department of Psychology University of Calgary, Calgary, AB T2N 1N4, Canada (email@example.com).
Accepted for Publication: May 19, 2021.
Published Online: August 9, 2021. doi:10.1001/jamapediatrics.2021.2482
Author Contributions: Drs Racine and Madigan had full access to all of the data in the study and take responsibility for the integrity of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis.
Concept and design: Racine, Madigan.
Acquisition, analysis, or interpretation of data: All authors.
Drafting of the manuscript: Racine, McArthur, Eirich, Zhu, Madigan.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: Racine, Cooke, Eirich, Madigan.
Statistical analysis: Racine, McArthur.
Administrative, technical, or material support: Madigan.
Supervision: Racine, Madigan.
Conflict of Interest Disclosures: Dr Racine reported fellowship support from Alberta Innovates. Dr McArthur reported a postdoctoral fellowship award from the Alberta Children’s Hospital Research Institute. Ms Cooke reported graduate scholarship support from Vanier Canada and Alberta Innovates Health Solutions outside the submitted work. Ms Eirich reported graduate scholarship support from the Social Science and Humanities Research Council. No other disclosures were reported.
Additional Contributions: We acknowledge Nicole Dunnewold, MLIS (Research and Learning Librarian, Health Sciences Library, University of Calgary), for her assistance with the search strategy, for which they were not compensated outside of their salary. We also acknowledge the contribution of members of the Determinants of Child Development Laboratory at the University of Calgary, in particular, Julianna Watt, BA, and Katarina Padilla, BSc, for their contribution to data extraction, for which they were paid as research assistants.
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