Accepted for Publication: June 11, 2021.
Published Online: August 16, 2021. doi:10.1001/jamainternmed.2021.4571
Open Access: This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the CC-BY License. © 2021 Wang Z et al. JAMA Internal Medicine.
Corresponding Authors: Kenneth K.C. Man, PhD, Research Department of Practice and Policy, UCL School of Pharmacy, Mezzanine Floor, BMA House, Entrance A, Tavistock Square, London, England WC1H 9JP (firstname.lastname@example.org); Ian C. K. Wong, PhD, L2-57, Laboratory Block, Department of Pharmacology and Pharmacy, Li Ka Shing Faculty of Medicine, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, 21 Sassoon Rd, Pokfulam, 00000 China (email@example.com).
Author Contributions: Drs Wong and Man had full access to all of the data in the study and take responsibility for the integrity of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis. Drs Wong and Man were co–senior authors.
Concept and design: Wang, Ip, Simonoff, Brauer, Wong, Man.
Acquisition, analysis, or interpretation of data: Wang, Chan, Coghill, Lau, Simonoff, Wei, Wong, Man.
Drafting of the manuscript: Wang, Simonoff, Man.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: All authors.
Statistical analysis: Wang, Chan, Wei, Man.
Obtained funding: Wong, Man.
Administrative, technical, or material support: Man.
Supervision: Ip, Simonoff, Brauer, Wei, Wong, Man.
Conflict of Interest Disclosures: Dr Coghill reported personal fees from Takeda/Shire, Medice, Novartis, and Servier and royalties from Oxford University Press and other Cambridge University Press outside the submitted work. Dr Wong reported research funding from the Hong Kong Research Grants Council, European Commission, and the Laboratory of Data Discovery for Health by the Hong Kong Government InnoHK initiative. Dr Man reported grants from C W Maplethorpe during the conduct of the study as well as grants the National Institute of Health Research, European Commission Framework Horizon 2020, Hong Kong Research Grant Council, Amgen Ltd, and GSK and personal fees from IQVIA outside the submitted work. No other disclosures were reported.
Funding/Support: This study is supported by the CW Maplethorpe Fellowship for KKCM’s Salary at UCL and a grant from the Innovation and Technology Commission of the Hong Kong Special Administration Region Government for Ms Chan’s salary at the University of Hong Kong. Data extraction in Hong Kong is funded by Hong Kong Research Grant Council Collaborative Research Fund number C7009-19G.
Role of the Funder/Sponsor: The funding organizations had no role in the design and conduct of the study; collection, management, analysis, and interpretation of the data; preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript; and decision to submit the manuscript for publication.
Additional Contributions: We thank Lisa Lam, BSc, BA, MJ (University of Hong Kong) and Elizabeth Jamieson, PhD (UCL School of Pharmacy) for help with proofreading the manuscript. They were not compensated for their contributions.
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