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Association of the COVID-19 Pandemic With the Prevalence of Homebound Older Adults in the United States, 2011-2020

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Article Information

Accepted for Publication: June 25, 2021.

Published Online: August 23, 2021. doi:10.1001/jamainternmed.2021.4456

Corresponding Author: Claire K. Ankuda, MD, MPH, One Gustave L. Levy Pl, PO Box 1070, New York, NY 10029 (claire.ankuda@mssm.edu).

Author Contributions: Dr Ankuda had full access to all of the data in the study and takes responsibility for the integrity of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis.

Concept and design: All authors.

Acquisition, analysis, or interpretation of data: Ankuda, Leff, Ritchie, Ornstein.

Drafting of the manuscript: Ankuda, Ritchie, Ornstein.

Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: All authors.

Statistical analysis: Ankuda, Ornstein.

Obtained funding: Ankuda, Siu.

Administrative, technical, or material support: Siu.

Supervision: Leff, Siu, Ornstein.

Conflict of Interest Disclosures: Dr Leff reported receiving stock options from MedZed, Koko, Honor, and Vessel Healthcare, and personal fees from Project Hope–Health Affairs outside the submitted work. Dr Ritchie reported receiving grants from the National Institutes of Health, The John A Hartford Foundation, Humana, California Healthcare Foundation, and PCORI, as well as consultant fees from the American Academy of Hospice and Palliative Medicine outside the submitted work; in addition, she had a patent as an editor for McGraw Hill with royalties, a patent as an editor for Wolters Kluwer with royalties, and a patent with the University of California, San Francisco with royalties. Dr Siu reported receiving grants from the National Institute on Aging (NIA) during the conduct of the study. No other disclosures were reported.

Funding/Support: Dr Ankuda is funded by NIA grant K76AG064427. Dr Ornstein is funded by NIA grant R01AG060967. Drs Ornstein and Ritchie are funded by NIA grant P01AG066605.

Role of the Funder/Sponsor: The NIA had no role in the design and conduct of the study; collection, management, analysis, and interpretation of the data; preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript; and decision to submit the manuscript for publication.

References
1.
Ornstein  KA , Leff  B , Covinsky  KE ,  et al.  Epidemiology of the homebound population in the United States.   JAMA Intern Med. 2015;175(7):1180-1186. PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
2.
Qiu  WQ , Dean  M , Liu  T ,  et al.  Physical and mental health of homebound older adults: an overlooked population.   J Am Geriatr Soc. 2010;58(12):2423-2428. PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
3.
Banerjee  A , Pasea  L , Harris  S ,  et al.  Estimating excess 1-year mortality associated with the COVID-19 pandemic according to underlying conditions and age: a population-based cohort study.   Lancet. 2020;395(10238):1715-1725. PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
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Gross  CP , Essien  UR , Pasha  S , Gross  JR , Wang  SY , Nunez-Smith  M .  Racial and ethnic disparities in population-level covid-19 mortality.   J Gen Intern Med. 2020;35(10):3097-3099. PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
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Figueroa  JF , Wadhera  RK , Mehtsun  WT , Riley  K , Phelan  J , Jha  AK .  Association of race, ethnicity, and community-level factors with COVID-19 cases and deaths across US counties.   Healthc (Amst). 2021;9(1):100495. PubMedGoogle Scholar
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Roberts  ET , Mehrotra  A .  Assessment of disparities in digital access among Medicare beneficiaries and implications for telemedicine.   JAMA Intern Med. 2020;180(10):1386-1389. PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
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