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Trends in Interregional Travel to Shopping Malls and Restaurants Before and After Differential COVID-19 Restrictions in the Greater Toronto Area

Educational Objective
To identify the key insights or developments described in this article
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CME Disclosure Statement: Unless noted, all individuals in control of content reported no relevant financial relationships. If applicable, all relevant financial relationships have been mitigated.

Article Information

Accepted for Publication: June 25, 2021.

Published: August 31, 2021. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2021.23139

Open Access: This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the CC-BY License. © 2021 Soucy JPR et al. JAMA Network Open.

Corresponding Author: Jean-Paul R. Soucy, MSc, Division of Epidemiology, Dalla Lana School of Public Health, 155 College St, Rm 500, Toronto, ON M5T 3M7, Canada (jeanpaul.soucy@mail.utoronto.ca).

Author Contributions: Dr Ghasemi had full access to all of the data in the study and takes responsibility for the integrity of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis. Mr Soucy and Dr Ghasemi provided equal contribution.

Concept and design: Soucy, Ghasemi, Sturrock, Berry, Buchan, Brown.

Acquisition, analysis, or interpretation of data: Soucy, Ghasemi, Buchan, MacFadden, Brown.

Drafting of the manuscript: Soucy, Ghasemi, Brown.

Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: All authors.

Statistical analysis: Ghasemi, Brown.

Obtained funding: Brown.

Administrative, technical, or material support: Sturrock, Berry, MacFadden, Brown.

Supervision: Brown.

Conflict of Interest Disclosures: Mr Soucy reported receiving personal fees from Public Health Agency of Canada outside the submitted work. Ms Sturrock reported receiving personal fees from The Regional Municipality of York outside the submitted work. No other disclosures were reported.

Additional Contributions: We thank Nick Daneman, MD, MSc, (Sunnybrook Hospital, Toronto, Ontario, Canada) and Nicholas Gibb, MSc (Public Health Agency of Canada, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada) for their contributions to this analysis and manuscript. These individuals received no compensation.

References
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Ontario Government. COVID-19 Response Framework: Keeping Ontario Safe and Open — Lockdown Measures. Published 2020. Accessed April 13, 2021. https://files.ontario.ca/moh-covid-19-response-framework-keeping-ontario-safe-and-open-en-2020-11-24.pdf
2.
Berry  I , Soucy  JR , Tuite  A , Fisman  D ; COVID-19 Canada Open Data Working Group.  Open access epidemiologic data and an interactive dashboard to monitor the COVID-19 outbreak in Canada.   CMAJ. 2020;192(15):E420. doi:10.1503/cmaj.75262PubMedGoogle Scholar
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Fisher  KA , Tenforde  MW , Feldstein  LR ,  et al; IVY Network Investigators; CDC COVID-19 Response Team.  Community and close contact exposures associated with COVID-19 among symptomatic adults ≥18 years in 11 outpatient health care facilities—United States, July 2020.   MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2020;69(36):1258-1264. doi:10.15585/mmwr.mm6936a5PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
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Chang  S , Pierson  E , Koh  PW ,  et al.  Mobility network models of COVID-19 explain inequities and inform reopening.   Nature. 2021;589(7840):82-87. doi:10.1038/s41586-020-2923-3PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
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Statistics Canada. Estimates of population (2016 Census and administrative data), by age group and sex for July 1st, Canada, provinces, territories, health regions (2018 boundaries) and peer groups. Published 2021. Accessed April 13, 2021. https://www150.statcan.gc.ca/t1/tbl1/en/tv.action?pid=1710013401
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Althouse  BM , Wallace  B , Case  B ,  et al.  The unintended consequences of inconsistent pandemic control policies.   medRxiv. Preprint posted online October 28, 2020. doi:10.1101/2020.08.21.20179473Google Scholar
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