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Rates of Prenatal Cannabis Use Among Pregnant Women Before and During the COVID-19 Pandemic

Educational Objective
To identify the key insights or developments described in this article

Cannabis use among pregnant women is common and has increased in recent years in the US, from an estimated 3.4% in 2002 to 7.0% in 2017.1 Pregnant women report using cannabis to relieve stress and anxiety,2 and prenatal cannabis use may have risen during the COVID-19 pandemic as pregnant women faced general and pregnancy-specific COVID-related stressors (eg, social isolation, financial and psychosocial distress, increased burden of childcare, changes in prenatal care, and concerns about heightened risks of COVID-19).3,4

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Article Information

Accepted for Publication: September 9, 2021.

Published Online: September 27, 2021. doi:10.1001/jama.2021.16328

Corresponding Author: Kelly C. Young-Wolff, PhD, MPH, Division of Research, Kaiser Permanente Northern California, 2000 Broadway, Oakland, CA 94612 (kelly.c.young-wolff@kp.org).

Author Contributions: Dr Young-Wolff had full access to all of the data in the study and takes responsibility for the integrity of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis.

Concept and design: Young-Wolff, Alexeeff, Adams, Does, Ansley, Avalos.

Acquisition, analysis, or interpretation of data: Young-Wolff, Ray, Alexeeff, Adams, Ansley, Avalos.

Drafting of the manuscript: Young-Wolff, Ray.

Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: All authors.

Statistical analysis: Ray, Alexeeff, Avalos.

Obtained funding: Young-Wolff, Avalos.

Administrative, technical, or material support: Young-Wolff, Adams, Does, Ansley, Avalos.

Supervision: Young-Wolff, Avalos.

Conflict of Interest Disclosures: None reported.

Funding/Support: This study was supported by grants DA047405, DA043604, and DA048033 from the National Institute on Drug Abuse.

Role of the Funder/Sponsor: The National Institute on Drug Abuse had no role in the design and conduct of the study; collection, management, analysis, and interpretation of the data; preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript; and decision to submit the manuscript for publication.

References
1.
Volkow  ND , Han  B , Compton  WM , McCance-Katz  EF .  Self-reported medical and nonmedical cannabis use among pregnant women in the United States.   JAMA. 2019;322(2):167-169. doi:10.1001/jama.2019.7982PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
2.
Ko  JY , Coy  KC , Haight  SC ,  et al.  Characteristics of marijuana use during pregnancy—eight states, Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System, 2017.   MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2020;69(32):1058-1063. doi:10.15585/mmwr.mm6932a2PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
3.
Davenport  MH , Meyer  S , Meah  VL , Strynadka  MC , Khurana  R .  Moms are not OK: COVID-19 and maternal mental health.   Front Glob Womens Health. 2020;1:1. doi:10.3389/fgwh.2020.00001Google ScholarCrossref
4.
Basu  A , Kim  HH , Basaldua  R ,  et al.  A cross-national study of factors associated with women’s perinatal mental health and wellbeing during the COVID-19 pandemic.   PLoS One. 2021;16(4):e0249780. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0249780PubMedGoogle Scholar
5.
California Department of Tax and Fee Administration. Cannabis tax revenues. Accessed July 29, 2021. https://www.cdtfa.ca.gov/dataportal/dataset.htm?url=CannabisTaxRevenues
6.
Committee on Obstetric Practice.  Committee opinion No. 722: marijuana use during pregnancy and lactation.   Obstet Gynecol. 2017;130(4):e205-e209. doi:10.1097/AOG.0000000000002354PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
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