Corresponding Author: Mytien Nguyen, MS, 333 Cedar St, New Haven, CT 06510 (firstname.lastname@example.org).
Accepted for Publication: July 31, 2021.
Published Online: October 6, 2021. doi:10.1001/jamasurg.2021.4898
Author Contributions: Dr Mason and Ms Nguyen had full access to all of the data in the study and take responsibility for the integrity of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis.
Concept and design: Nguyen, Mason.
Acquisition, analysis, or interpretation of data: Nguyen, Cerasani, Dinka, Rodriguez, Omoruan, Acosta, Alder, Brutus, Termuhlen, Dardik, Stain.
Drafting of the manuscript: Nguyen, Cerasani, Dinka, Rodriguez, Omoruan, Acosta, Alder, Brutus, Dardik.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: Nguyen, Cerasani, Dinka, Rodriguez, Omoruan, Acosta, Alder, Brutus, Termuhlen, Dardik, Mason, Stain.
Statistical analysis: Nguyen.
Obtained funding: Mason.
Administrative, technical, or material support: Nguyen, Cerasani, Dinka, Rodriguez, Omoruan, Acosta, Alder, Brutus, Mason.
Supervision: Dardik, Mason, Stain.
Conflict of Interest Disclosures: None reported.
Funding/Support: This study is based on data provided by the Association of American Medical Colleges (AAMC) and is supported by a Medical Education Scholarship Research and Evaluation grant from the AAMC Northeast Group on Educational Affairs (NEGEA) to Dr Mason and Albany Medical College Dean’s Discretionary Grant program. Ms Nguyen is supported by the National Institutes of Health Medical Scientist Training Program Training Grant (T32GM136651).
Role of the Funder/Sponsor: The funder had no role in the design and conduct of the study; collection, management, analysis, and interpretation of the data; preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript; and decision to submit the manuscript for publication.
Meeting Presentation: This work was presented at the 2021 annual meeting of the Association of Veterans Affairs Surgeons; April 25, 2021; virtual.
Disclaimer: This manuscript reflects the work and views of the authors and may not reflect the official views of the funding agencies (the Association of American Medical Colleges Northeast Group on Educational Affairs, the National Institutes of Health National Institute of General Medical Sciences, and Albany Medical College).
Additional Contributions: We thank Ashar Ata, MD (Albany Medical College), Sherry Wren, MD (Stanford University), Miguel Paniagua, MD (National Board of Medical Examiners), and Donna Jeffe, PhD (Washington University at St Louis), for their thoughtful perspectives and input. Additional critical review of the manuscript was performed by members of the Ad-Hoc Publication Committee, Association of VA Surgeons in Lynnwood, Washington. No compensation was received.
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