Accepted for Publication: September 9, 2021.
Published Online: November 29, 2021. doi:10.1001/jamainternmed.2021.6626
Corresponding Author: Harlan M. Krumholz, MD, SM, Section of Cardiovascular Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Yale School of Medicine, 195 Church St, 5th Flr, New Haven, CT 06510 (firstname.lastname@example.org).
Author Contributions: Mr Kadakia and Mr Beckman had full access to all of the data in the study and take responsibility for the integrity of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis.
Concept and design: All authors.
Acquisition, analysis, or interpretation of data: Ross.
Drafting of the manuscript: Kadakia, Beckman.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: All authors.
Administrative, technical, or material support: Kadakia, Beckman.
Conflict of Interest Disclosures: Mr Kadakia reported previous employment at Cleveland Clinic London, Blue Cross Blue Shield of North Carolina, and the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA), and has received consulting fees from the National Academy of Medicine, all unrelated to this article. At the time of publication, Mr Beckman is on a leave of absence from Harvard and is serving in the federal government COVID-19 response. However, this article was conceived and drafted while Mr. Beckman was a student at Harvard Medical School and Harvard Business School, and the findings and views in this article do not reflect the official views or policy of the Department of Health and Human Services. Dr Ross reported receiving grants from the FDA, Johnson and Johnson, Medical Devices Innovation Consortium, Association for Healthcare Research and Quality, the National Institutes of Health National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, and the Laura and John Arnold Foundation outside the submitted work. In the past 3 years, Dr Krumholz received expenses and/or personal fees from UnitedHealth (consulting), IBM Watson Health (consulting), Element Science (consulting), Aetna (consulting), Facebook (consulting), the Siegfried and Jensen Law Firm (expert testimony on behalf of plaintiffs), Arnold and Porter Law Firm (expert testimony on behalf of Bristol-Myers Squibb), Martin/Baughman Law Firm (expert testimony on behalf of plaintiffs), F-Prime (consulting), and the National Center for Cardiovascular Diseases in Beijing (research collaboration).
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