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Time-Dependent COVID-19 Mortality in Patients With CancerAn Updated Analysis of the OnCovid Registry

Educational Objective
To identify the key insights or developments described in this article
1 Credit CME
Key Points

Question  Has COVID-19 mortality in patients with cancer improved during the course of the pandemic in Europe?

Findings  In this registry-based study of 2634 patients in 6 European countries with COVID-19 and cancer, there was significant time-dependent improvement in the risk of death at 14 days and at 3 months.

Meaning  Mortality from COVID-19 has improved; this improvement may be associated with earlier diagnosis and improved disease management.

Abstract

Importance  Whether the severity and mortality of COVID-19 in patients with cancer have improved in terms of disease management and capacity is yet to be defined.

Objective  To test whether severity and mortality from COVID-19 among patients with cancer have improved during the course of the pandemic.

Design, Setting, and Participants  OnCovid is a European registry that collects data on consecutive patients with solid or hematologic cancer and COVID-19. This multicenter case series study included real-world data from 35 institutions across 6 countries (UK, Italy, Spain, France, Belgium, and Germany). This update included patients diagnosed between February 27, 2020, and February, 14, 2021. Inclusion criteria were confirmed diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 infection and a history of solid or hematologic cancer.

Exposures  SARS-CoV-2 infection.

Main Outcomes and Measures  Deaths were differentiated at 14 days and 3 months as the 2 landmark end points. Patient characteristics and outcomes were compared by stratifying patients across 5 phases (February to March 2020, April to June 2020, July to September 2020, October to December 2020, and January to February 2021) and across 2 major outbreaks (February to June 2020 and July 2020 to February 2021).

Results  At data cutoff, 2795 consecutive patients were included, with 2634 patients eligible for analysis (median [IQR] age, 68 [18-77] years ; 52.8% men). Eligible patients demonstrated significant time-dependent improvement in 14-day case-fatality rate (CFR) with estimates of 29.8% (95% CI, 0.26-0.33) for February to March 2020; 20.3% (95% CI, 0.17-0.23) for April to June 2020; 12.5% (95% CI, 0.06-22.90) for July to September 2020; 17.2% (95% CI, 0.15-0.21) for October to December 2020; and 14.5% (95% CI, 0.09-0.21) for January to February 2021 (all P < .001) across the predefined phases. Compared with the second major outbreak, patients diagnosed in the first outbreak were more likely to be 65 years or older (974 of 1626 [60.3%] vs 564 of 1008 [56.1%]; P = .03), have at least 2 comorbidities (793 of 1626 [48.8%] vs 427 of 1008 [42.4%]; P = .001), and have advanced tumors (708 of 1626 [46.4%] vs 536 of 1008 [56.1%]; P < .001). Complications of COVID-19 were more likely to be seen (738 of 1626 [45.4%] vs 342 of 1008 [33.9%]; P < .001) and require hospitalization (969 of 1626 [59.8%] vs 418 of 1008 [42.1%]; P < .001) and anti–COVID-19 therapy (1004 of 1626 [61.7%] vs 501 of 1008 [49.7%]; P < .001) during the first major outbreak. The 14-day CFRs for the first and second major outbreaks were 25.6% (95% CI, 0.23-0.28) vs 16.2% (95% CI, 0.13-0.19; P < .001), respectively. After adjusting for country, sex, age, comorbidities, tumor stage and status, anti–COVID-19 and anticancer therapy, and COVID-19 complications, patients diagnosed in the first outbreak had an increased risk of death at 14 days (hazard ratio [HR], 1.85; 95% CI, 1.47-2.32) and 3 months (HR, 1.28; 95% CI, 1.08-1.51) compared with those diagnosed in the second outbreak.

Conclusions and Relevance  The findings of this registry-based study suggest that mortality in patients with cancer diagnosed with COVID-19 has improved in Europe; this improvement may be associated with earlier diagnosis, improved management, and dynamic changes in community transmission over time.

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Article Information

Accepted for Publication: September 20, 2021.

Published Online: November 24, 2021. doi:10.1001/jamaoncol.2021.6199

Corresponding Author: Alessio Cortellini, MD (a.cortellini@imperial.ac.uk), and David J. Pinato, MD, PhD (david.pinato@imperial.ac.uk), Department of Surgery and Cancer, Imperial College London, Hammersmith Hospital, Du Cane Road, W12 0HS, London, United Kingdom.

OnCovid Study Group Authors: David J. Pinato, MD, PhD; Meera Patel, BSc; Lorenza Scotti, PhD; Emeline Colomba, MD; Saoirse Dolly, MD, PhD; Angela Loizidou, MD; John Chester, MD, PhD; Uma Mukherjee, MD, PhD; Alberto Zambelli, MD; Alessia Dalla Pria, MD; Juan Aguilar-Company, MD; Mark Bower, MD, PhD; Ramon Salazar, MD, PhD; Alexia Bertuzzi, MD; Joan Brunet, MD, PhD; Matteo Lambertini, MD, PhD; Marco Tagliamento, MD; Anna Pous, MD; Ailsa Sita-Lumsden, MD, PhD; Krishnie Srikandarajah, MBBS; Johann Colomba, MD; Fanny Pommeret, MD; Elia Seguí, MD; Daniele Generali, MD, PhD; Salvatore Grisanti, MD, PhD; Paolo Pedrazzoli, MD; Gianpiero Rizzo, MD; Michela Libertini, MD; Charlotte Moss, MRes; Joanne S. Evans, MPhil; Beth Russell, MD, PhD; Nadia Harbeck, MD, PhD; Bruno Vincenzi, MD, PhD; Federica Biello, MD; Rossella Bertulli, MD; Diego Ottaviani, MD, PhD; Raquel Liñan, MD; Sabrina Rossi, MD; M. Carmen Carmona-García, MD; Carlo Tondini, MD; Laura Fox, MD; Alice Baggi, MD; Vittoria Fotia, MD; Alessandro Parisi, MD; Giampero Porzio, MD; Paola Queirolo, MD; Claudia Andrea Cruz, MD; Nadia Saoudi-Gonzalez, MD; Eudald Felip, MD; Ariadna Roqué Lloveras, MD; Thomas Newsom-Davis, MD, PhD; Rachel Sharkey, RN; Elisa Roldán, MD; Roxana Reyes, MD; Federica Zoratto, MD; Irina Earnshaw, MBCHB; Daniela Ferrante, PhD; Javier Marco-Hernández, MD; Isabel Ruiz-Camps, MD, PhD; Gianluca Gaidano, MD; Andrea Patriarca, MD; Riccardo Bruna, MD; Anna Sureda, MD, PhD; Clara Martinez-Vila, MD; Ana Sanchez de Torre, MD; Rossana Berardi, MD, PhD; Raffaele Giusti, MD; Francesca Mazzoni, MD; Annalisa Guida, MD; Lorenza Rimassa, MD; Lorenzo Chiudinelli, MD; Michela Franchi, MD; Marco Krengli, MD; Armando Santoro, MD; Aleix Prat, MD, PhD; Josep Tabernero, MD, PhD; Mieke Van Hemelrijck, MD, PhD; Nikolaos Diamantis, MD, PhD; Alessandra Gennari, MD, PhD; Alessio Cortellini, MD.

Affiliations of OnCovid Study Group Authors: Department of Surgery & Cancer, Imperial College London, Hammersmith Hospital, London, United Kingdom (Pinato, Patel, Evans, Cortellini); Division of Oncology, Department of Translational Medicine, University of Piemonte Orientale, Novara, Italy (Pinato, Biello, Gennari); Department of Translational Medicine, Unit of Medical Statistics, University of Piemonte Orientale, Novara, Italy (Scotti, Ferrante); Department of Cancer Medicine, Institut Gustave Roussy, University of Paris Saclay, Villejuif, France (E. Colomba, J. Colomba, Pommeret); Medical Oncology, Guy’s and St Thomas’ NHS Foundation Trust, London, United Kingdom (Dolly, Sita-Lumsden, Srikandarajah); Department of Infectious Diseases, Internal Medicine, Institut Jules Bordet, Université Libre de Bruxelles, Brussels, Belgium (Loizidou); Medical Oncology, School of Medicine, Cardiff University, Cardiff, United Kingdom (Chester); Medical Oncology, Velindre Cancer Centre, Cardiff, United Kingdom (Chester); Medical Oncology, Barts Health NHS Trust, London, United Kingdom (Mukherjee, Diamantis); Oncology Unit, Azienda Socio Sanitaria Territoriale, Papa Giovanni XXIII, Bergamo, Italy (Zambelli, Tondini, Fotia, Chiudinelli, Franchi); Department of Oncology and National Centre for HIV Malignancy, Chelsea and Westminster Hospital, London, United Kingdom (Dalla Pria, Bower, Newsom-Davis, Sharkey); Medical Oncology, Vall d'Hebron University Hospital and Institute of Oncology, Barcelona, Spain (Aguilar-Company, Saoudi-Gonzalez, Roldán); Infectious Diseases, Vall d'Hebron University Hospital, Barcelona, Spain (Aguilar-Company, Ruiz-Camps); Department of Medical Oncology, ICO L’Hospitalet, Oncobell Program, CIBERONC, Hospitalet de Llobregat, Spain (Salazar); Medical Oncology and Hematology Unit, Humanitas Cancer Center, Istituto di Ricovero e Cura a Carattere Scientifico, Humanitas Research Hospital, Rozzano, Milan, Italy (Bertuzzi, Rossi, Rimassa, Santoro); Department of Medical Oncology, Catalan Institute of Oncology, University Hospital Josep Trueta, Girona, Spain (Brunet, Liñan, Carmona-García, Roqué Lloveras); Medical Oncology Department, Istituto di Ricovero e Cura a Carattere Scientifico, Ospedale Policlinico San Martino, Genova, Italy (Lambertini, Tagliamento); Department of Internal Medicine and Medical Specialties, School of Medicine, University of Genova, Genova, Italy (Lambertini, Tagliamento); Medical Oncology Department, Badalona Applied Research Group in Oncology, Institut Germans Trias i Pujol, Catalan Institute of Oncology-Badalona, Spain (Pous, Felip); Department of Medical Oncology, Hospital Clinic, Barcelona, Spain (Seguí, Cruz, Reyes, Prat); Multidisciplinary Breast Pathology and Translational Research Unit, Azienda Socio Sanitaria Territoriale, Cremona, Italy (Generali); Department of Medical, Surgical and Health Sciences, University of Trieste, Trieste, Italy (Generali, Baggi); Medical Oncology Unit, Spedali Civili, Brescia, Italy (Grisanti); Medical Oncology Unit, Fondazione Istituto di Ricovero e Cura a Carattere Scientifico, Humanitas Research Hospital, Policlinico San Matteo, Pavia, Italy (Pedrazzoli, Rizzo); Department of Internal Medicine and Medical Therapy, University of Pavia, Pavia, Italy (Pedrazzoli); Medical Oncology Unit, Fondazione Poliambulanza Istituto Ospedaliero, Brescia, Italy (Libertini); Translational Oncology and Urology Research, School of Cancer and Pharmaceutical Sciences, King’s College London, London, United Kingdom (Moss, Russell, Van Hemelrijck); Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Breast Center and Gynecological Cancer Center and Comprehensive Cancer Center Munich, University Hospital Munich, Munich, Germany (Harbeck); Policlinico Universitario Campus Bio-Medico, Rome, Italy (Vincenzi); Medical Oncology 2, Fondazione Istituto di Ricovero e Cura a Carattere Scientifico, Humanitas Research Hospital, Istituto Nazionale dei Tumori, Milan, Italy (Bertulli); Cancer Division, University College London Hospitals, London, United Kingdom (Ottaviani, Earnshaw); Department of Hematology, Vall d'Hebron University Hospital and Institute of Oncology, Barcelona, Spain (Fox); Department of Life, Health & Environmental Sciences, University of L’Aquila, L’Aquila, Italy (Parisi); Department of Biotechnology and Applied Clinical Sciences, University of L’Aquila, L’Aquila, Italy (Porzio, Cortellini); Melanoma and Sarcoma Medical Treatment Unit, Istituto Europeo di Oncologia, Milan, Italy (Queirolo); Medical Oncology, St Maria Goretti Hospital, Latina, Italy (Zoratto); Department of Internal Medicine, Hospital Clinic, Barcelona, Spain (Marco-Hernández); Division of Haematology, Department of Translational Medicine, University of Piemonte Orientale and Maggiore della Carità Hospital, Novara, Italy (Gaidano, Patriarca, Bruna); Haematology Department, Institut Catala d’Oncologia Hospitalet, Hospitalet de Llobregat, Bellvitge Institute for Biomedical Research, Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain (Sureda); Fundació Althaia Manresa, Manresa, Spain (Martinez-Vila); Hospital Universitario XII de Octubre Madrid, Spain (Sanchez de Torre); Medical Oncology, Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria Ospedali Riuniti, Polytechnic University of the Marche Region, Ancona, Italy (Berardi); Medical Oncology, St Andrea Hospital, Rome, Italy (Giusti); Medical Oncology, Careggi University Hospital, Florence, Italy (Mazzoni); Department of Oncology, Azienda Ospedaliera Santa Maria, Terni, Italy (Guida); Department of Biomedical Sciences, Humanitas University, Via Rita Levi Montalcini, Milan, Italy (Rimassa, Santoro); Division of Radiotherapy, Department of Translational Medicine, University of Piemonte Orientale and Azienda Ospedaliera Maggiore Della Carità, Novara, Italy (Krengli); Translational Genomics and Targeted Therapies in Solid Tumors, IDIBAPS, Barcelona, Spain (Prat); Medical Oncology, Vall d'Hebron University Hospital and Institute of Oncology, Baselga Oncological Institute at Quiron, Universitat de Vic - Universitat Central de Catalunya, Barcelona, Spain (Tabernero).

Author Contributions: Drs Cortellini and Pinato had full access to all of the data in the study and take responsibility for the integrity of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis. Drs Cortellini and Pinato had full access to all of the data and the final responsibility to submit for publication.

Concept and design: Pinato, Patel, Dalla Pria, Bower, Evans, Ottaviani, Liñan, Carmona-García, Cortellini.

Acquisition, analysis, or interpretation of data: Patel, Scotti, E. Colomba, Dolly, Loizidou, Chester, Mukherjee, Zambelli, Dalla Pria, Aguilar-Company, Bower, Salazar, Bertuzzi, Brunet, Lambertini, Tagliamento, Pous, Sita-Lumsden, Srikandarajah, J. Colomba, Pommeret, Seguí, Generali, Grisanti, Pedrazzoli, Rizzo, Libertini, Moss, Evans, Russell, Harbeck, Vincenzi, Biello, Bertulli, Ottaviani, Rossi, Tondini, Fox, Baggi, Fotia, Parisi, Porzio, Queirolo, Cruz, Saoudi-Gonzalez, Felip, Roqué Lloveras, Newsom-Davis, Sharkey, Roldán, Reyes, Zoratto, Earnshaw, Ferrante, Marco-Hernández, Ruiz-Camps, Gaidano, Patriarca, Bruna, Sureda, Martinez-Vila, Sanchez de Torre, Berardi, Giusti, Mazzoni, Guida, Rimassa, Chiudinelli, Franchi, Krengli, Santoro, Prat, Tabernero, Van Hemelrijck, Diamantis, Gennari, Cortellini.

Drafting of the manuscript: Pinato, Patel, Pous, Srikandarajah, Baggi, Fotia, Cruz, Saoudi-Gonzalez, Ferrante, Cortellini.

Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: Scotti, E. Colomba, Dolly, Loizidou, Chester, Mukherjee, Zambelli, Dalla Pria, Aguilar-Company, Bower, Salazar, Bertuzzi, Brunet, Lambertini, Tagliamento, Sita-Lumsden, J. Colomba, Pommeret, Seguí, Generali, Grisanti, Pedrazzoli, Rizzo, Libertini, Moss, Evans, Russell, Harbeck, Vincenzi, Biello, Bertulli, Ottaviani, Liñan, Rossi, Carmona-García, Tondini, Fox, Fotia, Parisi, Porzio, Queirolo, Felip, Roqué Lloveras, Newsom-Davis, Sharkey, Roldán, Reyes, Zoratto, Earnshaw, Marco-Hernández, Ruiz-Camps, Gaidano, Patriarca, Bruna, Sureda, Martinez-Vila, Sanchez de Torre, Berardi, Giusti, Mazzoni, Guida, Rimassa, Chiudinelli, Franchi, Krengli, Santoro, Prat, Tabernero, Van Hemelrijck, Diamantis, Gennari, Cortellini.

Statistical analysis: Pinato, Scotti, Sharkey, Zoratto, Ferrante, Cortellini.

Obtained funding: Pinato.

Administrative, technical, or material support: Pinato, Patel, Dolly, Aguilar-Company, Bower, Lambertini, Tagliamento, Pous, Srikandarajah, J. Colomba, Pedrazzoli, Moss, Evans, Russell, Harbeck, Vincenzi, Ottaviani, Fotia, Saoudi-Gonzalez, Felip, Roqué Lloveras, Patriarca, Martinez-Vila, Mazzoni, Chiudinelli, Tabernero, Van Hemelrijck, Diamantis, Gennari, Cortellini.

Supervision: Pinato, E. Colomba, Chester, Zambelli, Dalla Pria, Aguilar-Company, Bower, Bertuzzi, Sita-Lumsden, Grisanti, Libertini, Evans, Vincenzi, Biello, Ottaviani, Liñan, Carmona-García, Porzio, Queirolo, Bruna, Berardi, Mazzoni, Prat, Tabernero, Diamantis, Cortellini.

Other–data cleaning: Patel.

Other–data collection: Srikandarajah.

Other–providing patient data: Sureda.

Othercollecting data: Bertulli.

Conflict of Interest Disclosures: Dr Pinato reported receiving lecture fees from ViiV Healthcare, Bayer Healthcare, Bristol Myers Squibb, Roche, Eisai, and Falk Foundation; travel expenses from Bristol Myers Squibb and Bayer Healthcare; consulting fees from Mina Therapeutics, Eisai, Roche, DaVolterra, and AstraZeneca; and research funding (to institution) from MSD Pharma and Bristol Myers Squibb. Dr Zambelli reported receiving personal fees from Novartis, Lilly, Pfizer, AstraZeneca, ExactSciences, Merck, and Daiichi Sankyo outside the submitted work. Dr Bower reported receiving personal fees from Gilead, ViiV, Bristol Myers Squibb, and Merck speaker honoraria outside the submitted work. Dr Lambertini reported receiving speaker honoraria from and serving an advisory role for Roche, Novartis, AstraZeneca, Lilly, Pfizer, Takeda, and Sandoz outside the submitted work. Dr Prat reported receiving personal honoraria from Pfizer, Roche, MSD Oncology, Eli Lilly, and Daiichi Sankyo; travel, accommodations, and expenses paid by Daiichi Sankyo; research funding from Roche and Novartis; and consulting/advisory role for NanoString Technologies, Amgen, Roche, Novartis, Pfizer, and Bristol Myers Squibb. Dr Felip reported receiving research founding to institution by Pfizer and travel expenses from Lilly, Novartis, Pfizer, and Eisai. Dr Newsom-Davis reported receiving consulting/advisory role for Amgen, Bayer, AstraZeneca, Bristol Myers Squibb, Boehringer Ingelheim, Eli Lilly, MSD Pharma, Novartis, Otsuka, Pfizer, Roche, and Takeda; speakers fees from AstraZeneca, MSD Pharma, Roche, and Takeda; and travel, accommodations, and expenses paid by AstraZeneca, Bristol Myers Squibb, Boehringer Ingelheim, Lilly, MSD Pharma, Otsuka, Roche, and Takeda. Dr Brunet reported serving a consulting/advisory role for MSD Pharma and AstraZeneca. Dr Parisi reported serving a consulting/advisory role for Takeda and Sanofi. Dr Tagliamento reported receiving travel grants from Roche, Bristol Myers Squibb, AstraZeneca, and Takeda; and honoraria as medical writer from Novartis and Amgen outside the submitted work. Dr Evans reported receiving personal fees from AstraZeneca, honorarium for educational work and nonfinancial support from Boehringer Ingelheim Conference Registration, nonfinancial support from Novartis Conference Registration, and nonfinancial support from Roche Conference Registration outside the submitted work. Dr Harbeck reported receiving personal fees from AstraZeneca, Daiichi Sankyo, Lilly, Novartis, Pfizer, Pierre Fabre, Roche, Sandoz, and SeaGen outside the submitted work. Dr Fox reported receiving personal fees from Novartis and Sierra Oncology outside the submitted work. Dr Fotia reported receiving personal fees from Novartis and Gentili outside the submitted work. Dr Parisi reported receiving personal fees from GlaxoSmithKline and Pharmamar outside the submitted work. Dr Queirolo reported serving as a consultant/advisory board member for MSD Pharma, Novartis, Bristol Myers Squibb, Roche, Sun Pharma, Sanofi, and Pierre Fabre. Dr Felip reported receiving grants from Pfizer not related to this project. Dr Newsom-Davis reported receiving personal fees from Amgen AstraZeneca, Bayer, Bristol Myers Squibb, Boehringer Ingelheim, Guardant, Janssen & Janssen, Lilly, Merck, MSD Pharma, Novartis, Pfizer, Roche, Sanofi, and Takeda outside the submitted work. Dr Roldán reported receiving personal fees from MSD Pharma and travel expenses from Janssen and Novartis outside the submitted work. Dr Gennari reported serving a consulting/advisory role for Roche, MSD Pharma, Eli Lilly, Pierre Fabre, Eisai, and Daichii Sankyo; being a member of the speakers bureau for Eisai, Novartis, Eli Lilly, Roche, Teva, Gentili, Pfizer, AstraZeneca, Celgene, and Daichii Sankyo; and receiving research funds from Eisai, Eli Lilly, and Roche. Dr Martinez-Vila reported receiving travel grants and other honoraria from Bristol Myers Squibb, MSD Pharma, Novartis, and Roche. Dr Gaidano reported serving a consulting/advisory role for Janssen, AbbVie, AstraZeneca, and BeiGene; and receiving speaker fees from Janssen and AbbVie. Dr Sureda reported receiving personal fees from Takeda, Bristol Myers Squibb, MSD Pharma, Roche, GenMab, Novartis, Gilead Kite, and Janssen outside the submitted work. Dr Berardi reported receiving grants from AstraZeneca, Boehringer Ingelheim, Novartis, MSD Pharma, Otsuka, Lilly, Roche, Amgen, GlaxoSmithKline, and Eisai outside the submitted work. Dr Rimassa reported receiving consulting fees from Amgen, ArQule, AstraZeneca, Basilea, Bayer, Bristol Myers Squibb, Celgene, Eisai, Exelixis, Genenta, Hengrui, Incyte, Ipsen, IQVIA, Lilly, MSD Pharma, Nerviano Medical Sciences, Roche, Sanofi, and Zymeworks; lecture fees from AbbVie, Amgen, Bayer, Eisai, Gilead, Incyte, Ipsen, Lilly, Merck Serono, Roche, and Sanofi; travel expenses from Ipsen; and institutional research funding from Agios, ARMO BioSciences, AstraZeneca, BeiGene, Eisai, Exelixis, Fibrogen, Incyte, Ipsen, Lilly, MSD Pharma, Nerviano Medical Sciences, Roche, and Zymeworks. Dr Tabernero reported having personal financial interest in the form of a scientific consultancy role for Array Biopharma, AstraZeneca, Avvinity, Bayer, Boehringer Ingelheim, Chugai, Daiichi Sankyo, F. Hoffmann-La Roche Ltd, Genentech Inc, HalioDX SAS, Hutchison MediPharma International, Ikena Oncology, IQVIA, Lilly, Menarini, Merck Serono, Merus, MSD Pharma, Mirati, Neophore, Novartis, Orion Biotechnology, Peptomyc, Pfizer, Pierre Fabre, Samsung Bioepis, Sanofi, Seattle Genetics, Servier, Taiho, Tessa Therapeutics, and TheraMyc; and educational collaboration with Imedex, Medscape Education, MJH Life Sciences, PeerView Institute for Medical Education, and Physicians Education Resource. Dr Tabernero also reported having an institutional financial interest in the form of financial support for clinical trials or contracted research for Amgen Inc, Array Biopharma Inc, AstraZeneca Pharmaceuticals LP, BeiGene, Boehringer Ingelheim, Bristol Myers Squibb, Celgene, Debiopharm International SA, F. Hoffmann-La Roche Ltd, Genentech Inc, HalioDX SAS, Hutchison MediPharma International, Janssen-Cilag SA, MedImmune, Menarini, Merck Health KGAA, MSD, Merus NV, Mirati, Novartis Farmacéutica SA, Pfizer, Pharma Mar, Sanofi Aventis Recherche & Développement, Servier, Taiho Pharma USA Inc, Spanish Association Against Cancer Scientific Foundation, and Cancer Research UK. Dr Cortellini reported receiving consulting fees from MSD, Bristol Myers Squibb, AstraZeneca, and Roche; and speakers’ fees from AstraZeneca, MSD Pharma, Novartis, and Astellas. No other disclosures were reported.

Funding/Support: OnCovid was funded by the National Institute for Health Research Imperial Biomedical Research Centre. Dr Pinato was supported by grant PS3416 from the Wellcome Trust Strategic Fund and acknowledges grant support from the Cancer Treatment and Research Trust and infrastructural support by the Cancer Research UK Imperial Centre and the National Institute for Health Research Imperial Biomedical Research Centre. Dr Gaidano was supported by the AIRC 5×1000 grant, No. 21198, Associazione Italiana per la Ricerca sul Cancro Foundation, Milan, Italy. Dr Gennari was supported by the AIRC IG grant, No. 14230, Associazione Italiana per la Ricerca sul Cancro Foundation, Milan, Italy. Drs Gennari and Gaidano were supported by the UPO Aging Project.

Role of the Funder/Sponsor: The funders had no direct role in design and conduct of the study; collection, management, analysis, and interpretation of the data; preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript; and decision to submit the manuscript for publication.

Disclaimer: The views expressed are those of the author(s) and not necessarily those of the National Institute for Health Research or the Department of Health and Social Care.

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