US State-Level Legal Interventions Related to COVID-19 Vaccine Mandates | Law and Medicine | JN Learning | AMA Ed Hub [Skip to Content]
[Skip to Content Landing]

US State-Level Legal Interventions Related to COVID-19 Vaccine Mandates

Educational Objective
To identify the key insights or developments described in this article
1 Credit CME

Mandates can increase vaccine uptake,1 but their effectiveness is associated with who is covered, penalties, and exemptions.2 The US federal government recently required federal employees to be vaccinated against SARS-CoV-2 and developed standards for large employers.3 However, individual states traditionally take the lead in regulating public health via vaccine mandates.4 Some states have attempted to introduce requirements to increase uptake of COVID-19 vaccines.5 However, others have attempted to impede COVID-19 vaccine mandates. Most efforts have been considered by legislatures; also, some governors and regulatory agencies have issued executive orders. We assessed state-level legal interventions to promote or impede COVID-19 vaccine mandates since the beginning of the pandemic.

Sign in to take quiz and track your certificates

Buy This Activity

JN Learning™ is the home for CME and MOC from the JAMA Network. Search by specialty or US state and earn AMA PRA Category 1 CME Credit™ from articles, audio, Clinical Challenges and more. Learn more about CME/MOC

CME Disclosure Statement: Unless noted, all individuals in control of content reported no relevant financial relationships. If applicable, all relevant financial relationships have been mitigated.

Article Information

Accepted for Publication: November 22, 2021.

Published Online: December 2, 2021. doi:10.1001/jama.2021.22122

Corresponding Author: Breanna Fernandes, University of Western Australia, Perth, 35 Stirling Hwy, Crawley, WA 6009, Australia (22981317@student.uwa.edu.au).

Author Contributions: Ms Fernandes had full access to all of the data in the study and takes responsibility for the integrity of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis.

Concept and design: Fernandes, Navin, Omer, Attwell.

Acquisition, analysis, or interpretation of data: All authors.

Drafting of the manuscript: Fernandes, Navin, Attwell.

Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: Fernandes, Navin, Reiss, Omer.

Statistical analysis: Fernandes.

Administrative, technical, or material support: Fernandes, Navin, Attwell.

Supervision: Attwell.

Conflict of Interest Disclosures: Dr Reiss reported owning stock in GlaxoSmithKline and serving as an unpaid member of Moderna’s advisory ethics committee. Dr Attwell is a member of the Australian Technical Advisory Group on Immunization COVID-19 working group 2 and is a current recipient of a Discovery Early Career Researcher Award funded by the Australian Research Council of the Australian government (DE19000158). No other disclosures were reported.

References
1.
Delamater  PL , Pingali  SC , Buttenheim  AM , Salmon  DA , Klein  NP , Omer  SB .  Elimination of nonmedical immunization exemptions in California and school-entry vaccine status.   Pediatrics. 2019;143(6):1-9. doi:10.1542/peds.2018-3301PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
2.
Omer  SB , Betsch  C , Leask  J .  Mandate vaccination with care.   Nature. 2019;571(7766):469-472. doi:10.1038/d41586-019-02232-0PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
3.
The White House. Path out of the pandemic: President Biden’s COVID-19 action plan. Published 2021. Accessed November 25, 2021. https://www.whitehouse.gov/covidplan/
4.
Omer  SB , Peterson  D , Curran  EA , Hinman  A , Orenstein  WA .  Legislative challenges to school immunization mandates, 2009-2012.   JAMA. 2014;311(6):620-621. doi:10.1001/jama.2013.282869PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
5.
Stephenson  J .  As employers and colleges introduce COVID-19 vaccine mandates, wider use “remains an open question.”   JAMA Health Forum. 2021;2(4):e210874. doi:10.1001/jamahealthforum.2021.0874Google Scholar
6.
Immunizations; Exemption; Requirements, HB 2423, 55th Leg (AZ 2021).
If you are not a JN Learning subscriber, you can either:
Subscribe to JN Learning for one year
Buy this activity
jn-learning_Modal_Multimedia_LoginSubscribe_Purchase
Close
If you are not a JN Learning subscriber, you can either:
Subscribe to JN Learning for one year
Buy this activity
jn-learning_Modal_Multimedia_LoginSubscribe_Purchase
Close
With a personal account, you can:
  • Access free activities and track your credits
  • Personalize content alerts
  • Customize your interests
  • Fully personalize your learning experience
Education Center Collection Sign In Modal Right
Close

Name Your Search

Save Search
Close
With a personal account, you can:
  • Track your credits
  • Personalize content alerts
  • Customize your interests
  • Fully personalize your learning experience
jn-learning_Modal_SaveSearch_NoAccess_Purchase
Close

Lookup An Activity

or

Close

My Saved Searches

You currently have no searches saved.

Close

My Saved Courses

You currently have no courses saved.

Close
With a personal account, you can:
  • Access free activities and track your credits
  • Personalize content alerts
  • Customize your interests
  • Fully personalize your learning experience
Education Center Collection Sign In Modal Right
Close