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Digital contact tracing smartphone applications (apps) can mitigate the spread of COVID-19 through exposure notification.1- 4 However, their success requires widespread use. We examined the effectiveness of low-cost behavioral interventions (ie, nudges) in increasing downloads of Pennsylvania’s COVID Alert PA app. Specifically, we explored the effectiveness of 2 nudges5,6 on 39 937 individuals, one nudge displaying a descriptive social norm (vs not) and another framing the benefit of downloading for others (vs self).
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CME Disclosure Statement: Unless noted, all individuals in control of content reported no relevant financial relationships. If applicable, all relevant financial relationships have been mitigated.
Accepted for Publication: October 30, 2021.
Published: December 23, 2021. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2021.40839
Open Access: This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the CC-BY License. © 2021 Sharif MA et al. JAMA Network Open.
Corresponding Author: Marissa A. Sharif, PhD, Marketing Department, Wharton School of the University of Pennsylvania, 3730 Walnut Ave, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (email@example.com).
Author Contributions: Ms Bair had full access to all the data in the study and takes responsibility for the integrity of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis.
Concept and design: Sharif, Dixon, Garzon, Gibson, Volpp.
Acquisition, analysis, or interpretation of data: Sharif, Bair, Gibson, Linn.
Drafting of the manuscript: Sharif, Dixon.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: All authors.
Statistical analysis: Sharif, Bair.
Obtained funding: Dixon, Volpp.
Administrative, technical, or material support: Sharif, Dixon, Garzon, Volpp.
Supervision: Sharif, Dixon.
Conflict of Interest Disclosures: Dr Volpp reported being a part owner of VALHealth, a behavioral economics consulting firm; receiving research funding from Hawaii Medical Services Association, Humana, CVS, WW, and Vitality/Discovery; and receiving personal fees from Tandigm, Lehigh Valley Medical Center, Vizient, and the Center for Corporate Innovation. No other disclosures were reported.
Funding/Support: This study was supported by the Pennsylvania Department of Health for research involving COVID Alert PA, the exposure notification app for the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania.
Role of the Funder/Sponsor: The funder had no role in the design and conduct of the study; collection, management, analysis, and interpretation of the data; preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript; and decision to submit the manuscript for publication.
Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT05080179
Data Sharing Statement: See Supplement 3.
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