Corresponding Author: John R. Hurst, MB, ChB, PhD, UCL Respiratory, Royal Free Campus, University College London, Rowland Hill Street, London NW3 2PF, United Kingdom (email@example.com).
Accepted for Publication: December 6, 2021.
Author Contributions: Drs Hurst and Barber had full access to all of the data in the study and take responsibility for the integrity of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis. Drs Siddharthan and Pollard were joint first authors. Drs Checkley and Hurst were joint senior authors.
Concept and design: Siddharthan, Pollard, Barber, Kirenga, Miranda, Checkley, Hurst.
Acquisition, analysis, or interpretation of data: Siddharthan, Pollard, Quaderi, Rykiel, Wosu, Alupo, Barber, Cardenas, Chandyo, Flores-Flores, Kirenga, Miranda, Mohan, Ricciardi, Sharma, Das, Shrestha, Soares, Checkley, Hurst.
Drafting of the manuscript: Siddharthan, Pollard, Checkley, Hurst.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: Siddharthan, Pollard, Quaderi, Rykiel, Wosu, Alupo, Barber, Cardenas, Chandyo, Flores-Flores, Kirenga, Miranda, Mohan, Ricciardi, Sharma, Das, Shrestha, Soares, Checkley, Hurst.
Statistical analysis: Barber, Ricciardi, Checkley, Hurst.
Obtained funding: Siddharthan, Pollard, Barber, Kirenga, Miranda, Checkley, Hurst.
Administrative, technical, or material support: Siddharthan, Pollard, Quaderi, Rykiel, Wosu, Alupo, Chandyo, Flores-Flores, Kirenga, Miranda, Sharma, Shrestha, Checkley, Hurst.
Supervision: Siddharthan, Pollard, Quaderi, Rykiel, Wosu, Alupo, Barber, Chandyo, Flores-Flores, Kirenga, Miranda, Sharma, Das, Shrestha, Soares, Checkley, Hurst.
Conflict of Interest Disclosures: Dr Hurst reported receiving personal fees from AstraZeneca for educational and advisory work, nonfinancial support from AstraZeneca to attend meetings, personal fees from Boehringer Ingelheim for educational and advisory work, nonfinancial support from Boehringer Ingelheim to attend meetings, and grants from Nutricia, who provided product for a study of nutritional support in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, unrelated to the current study. No other disclosures were reported.
Funding/Support: This study was funded by the Medical Research Council (grant MR/P008984/1) and the National Institutes of Health (grants K23HL126946 [Dr Siddharthan], D43 TW009340 [Dr Flores-Flores], and 1D43TW011502-01 [Dr Flores-Flores]).
Role of the Funder/Sponsor: The Medical Research Council and the National Institutes of Health had no role in the design and conduct of the study; collection, management, analysis, and interpretation of the data; preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript; and decision to submit the manuscript for publication.
Disclaimer: The opinions expressed in this article are the authors’ own and do not reflect the views of the National Institutes of Health, the Department of Health and Human Services, or the US government.
Additional Contributions: We gratefully acknowledge the contributions of the field research teams and participants in the trial, the trial steering committee, the Medical Research Council, and the Global Alliance for Chronic Disease research network. Additionally, we thank Sonia Buist, MD (Oregon Health & Sciences University) for her review of this manuscript. Dr Buist did not receive compensation for her contribution.
Group Information: A list of the GECo Study Investigators is available in Supplement 4.
Additional Information: This research was conducted while Dr Pollard was employed at Johns Hopkins University.
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