Accepted for Publication: December 15, 2021.
Published Online: February 21, 2022. doi:10.1001/jamapediatrics.2021.6566
Corresponding Author: William Encinosa, PhD, Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, 5600 Fishers Ln, Rockville, MD 20857 (firstname.lastname@example.org).
Author Contributions: Dr Encinosa had full access to all the data in the study and takes responsibility for the integrity of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis.
Concept and design: Encinosa, Elias.
Acquisition, analysis, or interpretation of data: Encinosa, Figueroa.
Drafting of the manuscript: All authors.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: Encinosa, Figueroa.
Statistical analysis: Encinosa.
Obtained funding: Encinosa.
Administrative, technical, or material support: All authors.
Conflict of Interest Disclosures: Ms Figueroa reported receiving personal fees from Navitas Clinical Research Inc, Technical Resources International Inc, The Johns Hopkins University, and Georgetown University Medical Center outside the submitted work. No other disclosures were reported.
Funding/Support: This work was supported by the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality.
Role of the Funder/Sponsor: The funder had no role in the design and conduct of the study; collection, management, analysis, and interpretation of the data; preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript; and decision to submit the manuscript for publication.
Disclaimer: The views expressed in this article are those of the authors, and no official endorsement by the US Department of Health and Human Services and Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality is intended or should be inferred.
Additional Contributions: We thank Kyung Moon, PhD, of the Division of Blood Diseases and Resources, National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute, National Institutes of Health, for her invaluable advice and insight into the COVID-19 pandemic. She did not receive financial compensation for her contribution. We thank the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project Partner organizations for contributing data to the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project State Inpatient Databases used in this study. A full list of Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project Data Partners can be found at https://www.hcup-us.ahrq.gov/db/hcupdatapartners.jsp. The data partners received no financial compensation for their contribution.