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Differences in State COVID-19 Vaccine Mandates for Schoolteachers and Childcare Professionals

Educational Objective
To identify the key insights or developments described in this article
1 Credit CME

On August 11, 2021, California became the first state to require COVID-19 vaccination of schoolteachers. Childcare professionals, despite comparable occupational risk of contracting COVID-19, were excluded. To better understand this emerging disparity, we characterize state vaccine mandates for childcare professionals vs schoolteachers.

To determine which states had issued legislative or regulatory directives or both requiring vaccination of childcare or school personnel (as of November 1, 2021), we reviewed official archives of executive orders for all 50 states and DC and COVID-19 state databases maintained by the National Conference of State Legislatures1 and the National Academy for State Health Policy.2 For each identified state, we collected issue date, compliance deadline, type (eg, executive order, public health order), issuer (eg, governor, public health officer), availability of vaccine exemptions and testing alternatives, and acceptable proofs of vaccination. The current study is not research involving human subjects and is therefore not subject to institutional review board approval, per US Department of Health and Human Services regulation 45 CFR 46.101.

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Article Information

Accepted for Publication: December 15, 2021.

Published Online: February 28, 2022. doi:10.1001/jamapediatrics.2021.6572

Corresponding Author: Walter S. Gilliam, PhD, Yale Child Study Center, Yale School of Medicine, 310 Prospect St, New Haven, CT 06511 (walter.gilliam@yale.edu).

Author Contributions: Drs Patel and Gilliam had full access to all of the data in the study and take responsibility for the integrity of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis.

Concept and design: Patel, Gilliam.

Acquisition, analysis, or interpretation of data: All authors.

Drafting of the manuscript: Patel.

Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: Omer, Gilliam.

Statistical analysis: Patel, Gilliam.

Obtained funding: Gilliam.

Administrative, technical, or material support: Patel.

Supervision: Omer, Gilliam.

Conflict of Interest Disclosures: Dr Gilliam reported grants from the Andrew & Julie Klingenstein Family Fund, Esther A. & Joseph Klingenstein Fund, Heising-Simons Foundation, W.K. Kellogg Foundation, Foundation for Child Development, Early Educator Investment Collaborative, and Scholastic Inc, during the conduct of the study and is past president of Child Care Aware of America. No other disclosures were reported.

Funding/Support: All phases of this study were supported by the Andrew & Julie Klingenstein Family Fund, Esther A. & Joseph Klingenstein Fund, Heising-Simons Foundation, W.K. Kellogg Foundation, Foundation for Child Development, Early Educator Investment Collaborative, Scholastic Inc, Yale Institute for Global Health, and Tobin Center for Economic Policy at Yale University. Dr Patel is funded by the National Institutes of Health.

Role of the Funder/Sponsor: The funders had no role in the design and conduct of the study; collection, management, analysis, and interpretation of the data; preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript; and decision to submit the manuscript for publication.

References
1.
National Conference of State Legislatures. The early care and education workforce. Published April 27, 2021. https://www.ncsl.org/research/human-services/the-early-care-and-education-workforce.aspx
2.
National Academy for State Health Policy. State efforts to ban or enforce COVID-19 vaccine mandates and passports. Updated January 14, 2022. https://www.nashp.org/state-lawmakers-submit-bills-to-ban-employer-vaccine-mandates/
3.
Patel  KM , Malik  AA , Lee  A ,  et al.  COVID-19 vaccine uptake among US child care providers.   Pediatrics. 2021;148(5):e2021053813. doi:10.1542/peds.2021-053813PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
4.
US Census Bureau. Explore census data. Accessed September 26, 2021. https://data.census.gov/mdat/#/search?ds=ACSPUMS1Y2019&cv=HISP&rv=INDP&nv=NAICSP&wt=PWGTP
5.
National Center for Education Statistics. Table 235.10. Revenues for public elementary and secondary schools, by source of funds: selected years, 1919-20 through 2010-11. Accessed December 8, 2021. https://nces.ed.gov/programs/digest/d13/tables/dt13_235.10.asp
6.
Megerian  C . ‘Our patience is wearing thin’: Biden extends vaccine mandates as COVID toll rises. Los Angeles Times. September 9, 2021.
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