Gallbladder disease affects approximately 20 million people in the US. Acute cholecystitis is diagnosed in approximately 200 000 people in the US each year.
Gallstone-associated cystic duct obstruction is responsible for 90% to 95% of the cases of acute cholecystitis. Approximately 5% to 10% of patients with acute cholecystitis have acalculous cholecystitis, defined as acute inflammation of the gallbladder without gallstones, typically in the setting of severe critical illness. The typical presentation of acute cholecystitis consists of acute right upper quadrant pain, fever, and nausea that may be associated with eating and physical examination findings of right upper quadrant tenderness. Ultrasonography of the right upper quadrant has a sensitivity of approximately 81% and a specificity of approximately 83% for the diagnosis of acute cholecystitis. When an ultrasound result does not provide a definitive diagnosis, hepatobiliary scintigraphy (a nuclear medicine study that includes the intravenous injection of a radiotracer excreted in the bile) is the gold standard diagnostic test. Following diagnosis, early (performed within 1-3 days) vs late (performed after 3 days) laparoscopic cholecystectomy is associated with improved patient outcomes, including fewer composite postoperative complications (11.8% for early vs 34.4% for late), a shorter length of hospital stay (5.4 days vs 10.0 days), and lower hospital costs. During pregnancy, early laparoscopic cholecystectomy, compared with delayed operative management, is associated with a lower risk of maternal-fetal complications (1.6% for early vs 18.4% for delayed) and is recommended during all trimesters. In people older than 65 years of age, laparoscopic cholecystectomy is associated with lower mortality at 2-year follow-up (15.2%) compared with nonoperative management (29.3%). A percutaneous cholecystostomy tube, in which a drainage catheter is placed in the gallbladder lumen under image guidance, is an effective therapy for patients with an exceptionally high perioperative risk. However, percutaneous cholecystostomy tube placement in a randomized trial was associated with higher rates of postprocedural complications (65%) compared with laparoscopic cholecystectomy (12%). For patients with acalculous acute cholecystitis, percutaneous cholecystostomy tube should be reserved for patients who are severely ill at the time of diagnosis; all others should undergo a laparoscopic cholecystectomy.
Conclusions and Relevance
Acute cholecystitis, typically due to gallstone obstruction of the cystic duct, affects approximately 200 000 people in the US annually. In most patient populations, laparoscopic cholecystectomy, performed within 3 days of diagnosis, is the first-line therapy for acute cholecystitis.