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Association of Large Financial Incentives With COVID-19 Vaccination Uptake Among Employees of a Large Private Company

Educational Objective
To identify the key insights or developments described in this article
1 Credit CME

Without a federal mandate,1 motivating employees to receive COVID-19 vaccination is a challenge. For influenza vaccination, Nowalk et al2 found that a small ($5) financial incentive increased uptake by 3.4 percentage points in a workplace-based program. However, financial incentives to increase COVID-19 vaccination uptake have mixed outcomes. Campos-Mercade et al3 found that a moderate ($24) cash incentive increased COVID-19 vaccine uptake by 4.2 percentage points, whereas Wong et al4 found that $25 was associated with slower decline of vaccination uptake. Acharya and Dhakal5 found that large but uncertain incentives (lottery programs) across 11 states had mixed success.

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CME Disclosure Statement: Unless noted, all individuals in control of content reported no relevant financial relationships. If applicable, all relevant financial relationships have been mitigated.

Article Information

Accepted for Publication: March 14, 2022.

Published: April 29, 2022. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2022.9812

Open Access: This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the CC-BY-NC-ND License. © 2022 Georgiou A et al. JAMA Network Open.

Corresponding Author: Archelle Georgiou, MD, Starkey Hearing Technologies, 6700 Washington Ave South, Eden Prairie, MN 55344 (archelle_georgiou@starkey.com).

Author Contributions: Dr Georgiou had full access to all of the data in the study and takes responsibility for the integrity of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis.

Concept and design: All authors.

Acquisition, analysis, or interpretation of data: Chang, Karaca-Mandic.

Drafting of the manuscript: Georgiou, Chang.

Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: Chang, Karaca-Mandic.

Statistical analysis: All authors.

Administrative, technical, or material support: Chang.

Supervision: Karaca-Mandic.

Conflict of Interest Disclosures: Ms Chang reported being an employee at Health Care Cost Institute for work unrelated to this manuscript. Dr Karaca-Mandic reported receiving grants from United Health Foundation and grants from University of Minnesota Office of Academic and Clinical Affairs during the conduct of the study; personal fees from Sempre Health and equity and executive position from XanthosHealth outside the submitted work. No other disclosures were reported.

Funding/Support: This study was supported by Starkey Hearing Technologies.

Role of the Funder/Sponsor: The lead author of this manuscript, Dr Archelle Georgiou, is the Chief Health Officer of Starkey Hearing Technologies. Dr Georgiou led the design and conduct of the study as well as analysis, data interpretation, manuscript drafting and decision to submit. The roles of other Starkey Hearing Technologies staff included collection of the data for internal administrative purposes as well as review of the manuscript for the purposes of verifying accuracy of data collection and of vaccine incentive description.

Additional Contributions: Michael Cihlar, BA, Jennifer King, AAS, and Shelli McGuire, MA, contributed to data collection and management for this study. These employees routinely support human resources activities for Starkey Hearing Technologies and did not receive additional compensation related to this study.

References
1.
Oyez. Biden v. Missouri. Accessed March 7, 2022. https://www.oyez.org/cases/2021/21A240
2.
Nowalk  MP , Lin  CJ , Toback  SL ,  et al.  Improving influenza vaccination rates in the workplace: a randomized trial.   Am J Prev Med. 2010;38(3):237-246. doi:10.1016/j.amepre.2009.11.011PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
3.
Wong  CA , Pilkington  W , Doherty  IA ,  et al.  Guaranteed financial incentives for COVID-19 vaccination: a pilot program in North Carolina.   JAMA Intern Med. 2022;182(1):78-80. doi:10.1001/jamainternmed.2021.6170PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
4.
Klüver  H , Hartmann  F , Humphreys  M , Geissler  F , Giesecke  J .  Incentives can spur COVID-19 vaccination uptake.   Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2021;118(36):e2109543118. doi:10.1073/pnas.2109543118PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
5.
Acharya  B , Dhakal  C .  Implementation of state vaccine incentive lottery programs and uptake of COVID-19 vaccinations in the United States.   JAMA Netw Open. 2021;4(12):e2138238. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2021.38238PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
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