Accepted for Publication: April 1, 2022.
Published: May 17, 2022. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2022.12686
Correction: This article was corrected on August 4, 2022, to correct data in the Results, Table, and Figure that were incorrect owing to a coding error.
Open Access: This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the CC-BY License. © 2022 Elo IT et al. JAMA Network Open.
Corresponding Author: Irma T. Elo, PhD, Population Studies Center and Department of Sociology, University of Pennsylvania, 3718 Locust Walk, Room 239, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (firstname.lastname@example.org).
Author Contributions: Dr Elo and Ms Luck had full access to all the data in the study and take responsibility for the integrity of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis.
Concept and design: Elo, Stokes, Hempstead, Preston.
Acquisition, analysis, or interpretation of data: Elo, Luck, Stokes, Xie.
Drafting of the manuscript: Elo, Stokes, Preston.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: All authors.
Statistical analysis: Luck, Xie, Preston.
Obtained funding: Elo, Stokes.
Supervision: Elo, Preston.
Conflict of Interest Disclosures: Dr Stokes reported receiving grants from Swiss Re and Johnson & Johnson outside the submitted work. No other disclosures were reported.
Funding/Support: This study was supported by grant 77521 from the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation (Dr Stokes), grants R01 AG060115 and R01 AG060115-04S1 from the National Institute on Aging, National Institutes of Health (Dr Elo), and grant T32HD007242 from the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (Ms Luck).
Role of the Funder/Sponsor: The sponsors had no role in the design and conduct of the study; collection, management, analysis, and interpretation of the data; preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript; and decision to submit the manuscript for publication.
Disclaimer: The interpretations, conclusions, and recommendations in this work are those of the authors and do not necessarily represent the views of the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation or the National Institute of Aging.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS). Provisional mortality statistics by multiple cause of death and by single race, for 2018 through present. Reviewed March 24, 2022. Accessed December 16, 2021. https://wonder.cdc.gov/mcd.html